博碩士論文 etd-0011116-111128 詳細資訊


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姓名 鄭志晧(Zhi-Hao Zheng) 電子郵件信箱 E-mail 資料不公開
畢業系所 海洋科學系研究所(Department of Oceanography)
畢業學位 碩士(Master) 畢業時期 104學年第1學期
論文名稱(中) 雜色尖嘴魚 (隆頭魚科) 無骨骼性雙型暨近緣種之親緣關係
論文名稱(英) Non-sexual dimorphism of skeleton in Gomphosus varius (Labridae) and morphological comparison in relative species
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    摘要(中) 隆頭魚科 (Labridae) 為熱帶珊瑚礁海域中種類最豐富且色彩鮮豔的魚類科別,多數種類具有先雌後雄的性轉變以及外部形態上明顯的性雙型。雜色尖嘴魚 (Gomphosus varius) 為隆頭魚科中性雙型相當顯著的種類之一,包括雌雄間的體色以及尾鰭形狀的外部形態差異,但目前並未有任何關於雜色尖嘴魚骨骼性雙型的內部形態差異文獻。研究指出某些魚類的雄性會快速揮舞其胸鰭並與相連部位之骨格摩擦產生聲音以求偶,雜色尖嘴魚也有類似的求偶行為,但不曾有研究指出其雄魚之胸鰭與相連部位之骨骼是否有特殊構造。另外,由於各文獻中關於雜色尖嘴魚尾鰭形狀的描述不盡相同,以及曾於其他隆頭魚科魚類發現骨骼性二色,基於以上動機,本研究認為雜色尖嘴魚之骨骼性雙型是值得探討並詳細描述的題材。除此之外,本研究還將所觀察骨骼結構及側線鱗數等外部形態特徵,與紫錦魚 (Thalassoma purpureum)、三線紫胸魚 (Stethojulis trilineata)、雲斑海豬魚 (Halichoeres hortulanus)、黑鰭半裸魚 (Hemigymnus melapterus)、裂唇魚 (Labroides dimidiatus)、青斑阿南魚 (Anampses caeruleopunctatus)、紅喉盔魚 (Coris aygula) 與狹帶全裸鸚鯛 (Hologymnosus doliatus) 等八種近緣物種進行比較,並探討彼此間的親緣關系。本研究切除雜色尖嘴魚之肌肉與皮膚觀察骨骼色彩;使用軟硬骨二重染色法觀察骨骼形態,再以手繪圖及相片呈現觀察結果;親緣關係之探討建立利用NEXUS Data Editor 紀錄特徵狀態並製作特徵矩陣,最後以PAUP* 4.0建構親緣關係樹。結果顯示雜色尖嘴魚之尾鰭部位已確認為Randall (2005) 和Westneat (2001) 之描述最為正確,雌魚截形;雄魚隨成長由截形延長為絲狀或微凹,並發現尾鰭末端之鱗片分佈雌魚皆呈縱向線狀排列,雄魚部分個體縱向線狀排列部分縱向內凹狀排列;骨骼色彩無性雙型;胸鰭部位無性雙型;其餘骨骼部位亦無性雙型;以三十個形態特徵為基礎進行探討的近緣物種之親緣關係,外群的紅喉盔魚被併入內群中,若以其中二十七個形態特徵為基礎進行分析,所建構之親緣關係樹可將內群之物種區分為單系群,內群中又可區分為兩個單系群,其樹形與先前研究之分子親緣關係樹大致上吻合。
    摘要(英) The family Labridae is the most abundant and colorful fish family in coral reef ecosystem. Most species of the Labridae are sequential hermaphroditism. In addition, their external morphology exhibit obvious sexual dimorphism. Gomposus varius is one of members with elongating snout that exhibits obvious sexual dimorphism, including color patterns and the shape of caudal fin. However, despite the extraordinary morphology, there is no study on the morphology to investigate sexual dimorphism in osteology to date. Previous study has shown that males of Sundadanio can make sound through flapping their distinctive skeleton structure on pectoral fin for courtship. Gomposus varius display similar behavior, but there is still no study on whether this species has distinctive skeleton structure on their pectoral fin or not. In addition, the descriptions on the shape of caudal fin are not congruent among different authors. Previous study has shown sexual dichronism present in other labrid fish. It is possible that sexual dichronism was also present in G. varius. The aim of the present study is to examine the sexual dimorphism in G. varius and to reconstruct the phylogeny of the genus Gomposus and related genera using morphological characters. Muscles of G. varius were removed and specimens of G. varius were cleared and stained to compare the color of bones and the structures of skeletons between male and female. There is no sexual dimorphism observed in color of skeleton and the morphology of pectoral fin. The remaining parts of skeleton did not exhibit sexual dimorphism either. However, the arrangement of last vertical-scale row might be sexual dimorphic. It is arranged in a straight line in females and small males and arranged in a “<” shape in larger males. Further study may be needed to confirm the correlation of the arrangement to sex. The shape of caudal fin described by Randall (2005) and Westneat (2001) is supported by the present study, caudal fin rounded in small individuals, but truncate with prolonged into filamentous in large males. In addition, twenty nine characters of skeleton and numbers of lateral-line scales of G. varius, Thalassoma purpureum, Stethojulis trilineata, Halichoeres hortulanus, Hemigymnus melapterus, Labroides dimidiatus, Anampses caeruleopunctatus, Coris aygul and Hologymnosus doliatus were examined. The character matrix was made by NEXUS Data Editor and the phylogenetic tree were reconstructed by PAUP* 4.0. In the phylogenetic tree reconstructed by all morphological characters, Coris aygul, a species considered as an outgroup, has been placed as a sister group of Halichoeres hortulanus. However, while three characters, thickness of circumorbital bone, shape of leading edge of hyomandibular, depression of lower edge of hyomandibular, were removed, the topology of the morphological tree is congruent with previously published molecular tree, with G. varius, T. purpureum, S. trilineata, H. hortulanus, Hemigymnus melapterus, L. dimidiatus, A. caeruleopunctatus divided into two groups and G. varius a sister group of T. purpureum.
    關鍵字(中)
  • 性雙型
  • 雜色尖嘴魚
  • 親緣關係
  • 骨骼形態
  • 隆頭魚科
  • 關鍵字(英)
  • Gomphosus varius
  • sexual dimorphism
  • osteology
  • phylogeny
  • Labridae
  • 論文目次 目錄
    論文審定書 i
    謝辭 ii
    中文摘要 iii
    英文摘要 v
    目錄 vii
    表目錄 viii
    圖目錄 ix
    附錄 x
    壹、前言 1
    貳、材料與方法 7
    参、結果與討論 10
    肆、結論 20
    參考文獻 21
    附表 26
    附圖 29
    附錄 54

    表目錄
    表一、骨骼名稱中英文對照表。 26
    表二、軟硬骨二重染色法製作流程 27
    表三、實驗物種之特徵矩陣 28

    圖目錄
    圖一、雜色尖嘴魚 (Gomphosus varius) 29
    圖二、各部位長度測量示意圖 30
    圖三、雜色尖嘴魚(Gomphosus varius)各部位骨骼色彩比較。 31
    圖四、切除皮膚與肌肉之雜色尖嘴魚(Gomphosus varius)。 32
    圖五、雜色尖嘴魚(Gomphosus varius)雌雄之尾鰭 33
    圖六、雄魚尾鰭凹陷與體長關係之示意圖 34
    圖七、雄魚尾鰭長度比例與魚體全長關係圖 35
    圖八、肩帶 36
    圖九、頭顱側視圖 37
    圖十、頭顱俯視圖 38
    圖十一、眶圍骨系 39
    圖十二、上頷側視圖 40
    圖十三、下頷內視圖 41
    圖十四、舌骨 42
    圖十五、舌頷骨 43
    圖十六、尾舌骨 44
    圖十七、咽喉齒 45
    圖十八、鰓弓 46
    圖十九、方骨 47
    圖二十、背鰭與脊椎 48
    圖二十一、腰帶 49
    圖二十二、尾柄骨 50
    圖二十三、第一尾椎前視圖 51
    圖二十四、使用表三中所有特徵所建構之親緣關係樹 52
    圖二十五、去除特徵9、15、16後所建構之親緣關係樹 53
    附錄
    附錄一 樣本清單 54
    附錄二 特徵清單 55
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  • 廖德裕 - 指導教授
  • 口試日期 2015-07-30 繳交日期 2016-01-11

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