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What Makes an Innovative Entrepreneurial Team? An Examination of Functional Roles, Cognitive Styles and Entrepreneurial Passion Diversity
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任金剛, 王耀德, 陳學志
Chin-Kang Jen; Yau-De Wang; Hsueh-Chih Chen
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Entrepreneurial Teams, Cognitive Styles, Entrepreneurship, Diversity, Psychological Safety, Entrepreneurial Passion
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創業被視為是經濟發展的基礎，並且在許多方面對社會有益。研究發現， 相較於一個人所成立的新創事業，由一個團隊所共同成立的新創事業較容易成長並存活下來。然而，工作團隊多樣性及創業團隊組成對團隊績效之影響等相關議題，在研究上仍顯不足。本研究目的旨在探討創業團隊多元性與成員創新行為，及團隊績效之間的關係。本研究首先探究創業家與創業團隊的定義，並透過質化訪談的方式，針對創業團隊的組成方式進行進行初探性研究。接著本研究以量化的方式檢驗團隊多元性對成員創新行為和團隊績效的影響， 此外，本研究也探討團隊心理安全氣氛的調節效果。
Entrepreneurship has been recognized as the foundation of economic growth, and benefits the society in many aspects. It is found that new venture founded by a team of members is more likely to grow and survive compared to solo entrepreneurs. However, the effects of work team diversity and composition of entrepreneurial teams remain underexplored. The current study aims to explore how heterogeneous resources affect an entrepreneurial team’s innovative performance. The study begin with an overview of the definitions of the entrepreneur and entrepreneurial teams, then a qualitative pilot study is conducted to understand the entrepreneurial team formation process. Finally, an empirical study is conducted to examine the effects of team diversity on team member innovative behavior and team performance, and the effects of team psychological safety as a moderator between these relationships.
Time-lagged data were obtained from 110 employees from 30 entrepreneurial teams. The hypothesized model was tested using two-level structural equation models. The results found support for the diversity-performance link. Specifically, surface level diversity is positively related to innovative behavior, while certain dimensions of cognitive style diversity and entrepreneurial passion diversity are negatively related to team performance and innovative behavior. Contrary to the expectations, psychological safety only moderates the relationship between role diversity and innovative behavior, all other moderation effects were insignificant.
目次 Table of Contents
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background and Motivation 1
1.2 Problem Statement 6
1.3 Research Objectives 7
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 9
2.1 Entrepreneurial Teams 10
2.1.1 Definition of the Entrepreneur 10
2.1.2 Entrepreneurial Teams 18
2.2 Team Effectiveness Model 21
2.3 Team Diversity 25
2.4 Entrepreneurial Team Diversity 26
2.4.1 Functional Diversity 27
2.4.2 Cognitive Styles 28
2.4.3 Entrepreneurial Passion 30
2.4 Entrepreneurial Team Diversity and Innovation 31
2.5.1 Creativity and Innovation 31
2.5.2 Innovative Behavior 32
2.5.3 Functional Role Diversity and Innovation 33
2.5.4 Cognitive Styles and Innovation 34
2.5.5 Entrepreneurial Passion and Innovation 36
2.5 Psychological Safety 39
2.5.1 Psychological Safety 39
2.5.2 The Moderation Role of Psychological Safety 40
CHAPTER 3 METHODS 44
3.1 Research Framework 44
3.2 Hypotheses 45
3.3 Qualitative Pilot Study 46
3.3.1 Informants and Procedures 46
3.3.2 Preliminary Results 47
3.4 Empirical Study 49
3.4.1 Sample and Procedures 49
3.5 Variable Definitions and Instruments 54
3.5.1 Functional Diversity 54
3.5.2 Cognitive Styles 55
3.5.3 Entrepreneurial Passion 56
3.5.4 Psychological Safety 57
3.5.5 Innovative behavior 58
3.5.6 Team Performance 58
3.5.7 Demographic and Control Variables 59
3.6 Data Analysis 59
3.6.1 Reliability Analysis and Factor Analysis 59
3.6.2 Hierarchical Linear Modeling 60
3.6.3 Diversity 61
CHAPTER 4 RESULTS 64
4.1 Reliability Analysis and Factor Analysis 64
4.2 Data Aggregation 72
4.3 Diversity 72
4.4 Descriptive Statistics and Correlation 73
4.5 Hypotheses Testing 77
CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION 82
5.1 Theoretical Implications 82
5.2 Managerial Implications 87
5.3 Limitations and Future Research Directions 87
5.4 Conclusions 89
Appendix I Preliminary Results 109
Appendix II Questionnaires 116
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