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博碩士論文 etd-0018118-100421 詳細資訊
Title page for etd-0018118-100421
論文名稱
Title
創業教育裡的開創學習:以課堂民族誌敘說為線索
Entrepreneuring Learning in Entrepreneurship Education: Class Ethnonarrative as the Clue
系所名稱
Department
畢業學年期
Year, semester
語文別
Language
學位類別
Degree
頁數
Number of pages
224
研究生
Author
指導教授
Advisor
召集委員
Convenor
口試委員
Advisory Committee
口試日期
Date of Exam
2018-01-02
繳交日期
Date of Submission
2018-01-18
關鍵字
Keywords
創業、民族誌敘說方法、開創學習、創業教育、開創、流變為他者
becoming-others, Entrepreneurship, Entrepreneuring, Entrepreneurship Education, Entrepreneuring Learning, Ethnonarrative method
統計
Statistics
本論文已被瀏覽 5791 次,被下載 2
The thesis/dissertation has been browsed 5791 times, has been downloaded 2 times.
中文摘要
本研究從開創視角作為起點,重新思考創業教育的開創學習,如何對目前的創業教育文獻和研究提出新的思考切面。過去創業教育研究大多以經濟觀點審視創業教育所帶來的效益層面,卻鮮少進入回到創業教育的學習者的學習現場,審視學習者的創造與改變歷程。首先,學習者的經驗是奠基在「世界性真實」(worldly realities)之上。因此創業教育必須從學習者所居處的世界出發,自人置身所在所遭逢的主觀且唯一能夠感覺的真實,作為主體認識經驗的起點,進行經驗的擴大與思想的顛覆。再者,創業教育是不僅只是學習或選擇既有的概念知識或工具,而是努力讓學習者通過學習的歷程學會「創造」尚未存在的選擇。在此脈絡的引導下,本文試圖以民族誌敘說方法作為研究方法,將二堂已培育開創精神為目的的創業實作課堂,作為研究開創學習的線索,試圖描繪與討論學習者在實作中所發生、開展與體驗的開創學習,並提出二個研究問題:實作裡的開創學習是什麼?學習者在實作中如何產生開創學習?而本研究發現,所謂的開創學習便是學習者在實作的現場所展現的三種他者流變,分別為:自我的他者、行動的他者,以及關係的他者。而這樣歷程是在三種歷程中所發生1.「差異自我的覺醒」歷程2.「進入隱勢的探索與實現,引動差異融合的實現」歷程3.「啟動集體關係重構,流變為關係開創共同體」歷程。這樣的發現將有助於創業教育實務者,重新思考創業教育的關懷重點,從過去的結果論,擴大到學習者的學習與流變歷程,才能開展出更具開創性或創業性的學習者。
Abstract
This study starts from the perspective of entrepreneursing to rethinks entrepreneuring learning in entrepreneurship education (EE) and puts forward some new aspects for the current literature and research on entrepreneurship education. In the past, most of the research on entrepreneurship education looked at the benefits brought by entrepreneurship education from an economic point of view. However, it seldom enters the learning process of learners of entrepreneurial education and deliberate the process of creation and change of learners. In fact, learners' experience is based on worldly realities. Therefore, entrepreneurship education must start from the world in which learners live, consider the subjective and only real realities that one encounters, as the starting point for the subject to experience the world, expand the experience and overthrow the mind. Besides, entrepreneurship education is not just a channel to choose and learn existing conceptual knowledge or tools, but trying to make learners learn to how to create the non-existent choice through the learning process. Under this context, this research tries to take the method of ethnonarrative as the, and take two practice-based entrepreneurial courses, which purposes are to cultitivate learners have entrepreneuring mindetl, as a clue, trying to inquire and discuss entrepreneuring learning which happen and embody on learners. I ask two key questions: What is entrepreneuring learning in practice? How do learners encounter entrepreneuring learning in practice? This study discovers that the so-called “entrepreneuring learning” is the three kinds of the other becoming- the other of the self, the other of the act, and the other of the relationship. And this process is the occurrence of three kinds of processes: 1). The process of "the awakening of difference self", 2) the process of " entering the exploration and realization of virtual and promoting the realization of the convergence of differentiation and divergence, 3). the process of switching on the reconstruction of collective relations, creating the community of relationships. Such findings will help entrepreneurship education practitioners to reflect on the focus of entrepreneurship education, from the econimic results in the past to the learning and entrepreneuring process of learners in order to carry out more pioneering or entrepreneurial learners.
目次 Table of Contents
第一章 緒論:一切從「你有興趣嗎?」開始 1
第一節 研究起點:從一堂創業教育的實作課開始 2
第二節 當前的創業教育 3
第三節 臺灣創業教育脈絡 6
一、臺灣創業教育現況 6
二、從講授知識到行動知識 9
三、從行動知識到開創精神培育 10
第四節 創業教育的沿革與問題:從認知學習到開創學習 12
第二章、文獻回顧:從經濟觀點的創業教育,邁向開創學習 15
第一節 創業是什麼? 15
一、經濟創業實體觀點 15
二、開創觀點 17
第二節 邁向創業/開創學習觀點 19
一、開創教育學作為理解創業教育裡,開創學習的新起點 19
二、以實作做為開創學習的進路 19
三、從實作中流變為他者:流變哲學 20
四、從開創中學習,從學習中開創:學習應是流變為他者 22
五、透過實作啟動他者的流變 24
第三章、研究方法-民族誌敘說研究法 29
第一節 民族誌敘說法 29
一、什麼是民族誌敘說方法 29
二、以民族誌敘說探究實作型創業教育的優點 30
(一)文本與脈絡的內生關係,藉以豐富化實作型創業教育的學習現象 31
(二)持續建構中的脈絡敘說,幫助創業學習者從實作中反思,並持續改變 31
(三)以社會行動作為分析層次,累積豐富與大量的事件,作為學習者真實經驗開創的概念創造 31
第二節 方法與資料收集 33
一、研究田野 33
(一)創業管理 34
(二)創業與實踐 36
二、資料收集 37
(一)學習者的訪談逐字稿 38
三、將事件作為學習者真實經驗開創的概念創造 43
四、事件作為學習者開創觀察的切面:學習者三菱鏡分析表格 44
(一) 學習者三菱鏡分析表格 44
(二)如何發展與使用表格 44
第四章 學習經驗分析:學習者的學習事件 51
第一節 與團隊相處事件 53
一、【創業管理S同學】「與團隊相處」中啟動自我反思,有了新的自我改變 53
二、【創業管理M1同學】從「團隊相處」中,看到團隊可以是開放心胸的正向循環合作 53
三、【創業與實踐M2同學】 「團隊相處」初期是一種分工關係的自我覺察 54
四、【創業與實踐M2同學】從「團隊相處」中突破原本的自己,硬著頭皮也要做自己不敢做的 55
五、【創業與實踐M2同學】從「團隊相處」中,覺察大家有一種正向的氛圍,讓我從「不敢」到「敢」了 55
六、【創業與實踐T同學】從「團隊相處」中,發現大家從專業經驗出發,進行創造的探索 56
七、【創業與實踐T同學】從「團隊相處」歷程,啟動革命情感 57
八、【創業與實踐T同學】從「團隊相處」中,重新解構與認識團隊不一定要職責分工的很清楚 57
九、【創業與實踐L同學】「團隊相處」為策展集體努力,成為具有共同志業的群體 58
十、【創業與實踐L同學】於「團隊相處」中,促成跨界的融合創造 58
第二節 策展現場事件 60
一、【創業管理S同學】與「策展現場」的連結,啟動持續的探索行動 60
二、【創業管理P同學】團隊在「策展現場」持續浮現創造與合作 60
三、【創業管理P同學】在「策展現場」打破小組關係,成為一個整體 61
四、【創業管理C同學】「策展現場」創造情境遭逢,啟動即興創造 61
五、【創業管理C同學】「策展現場」激發快速回應突發情境的能力 61
六、【創業與實踐M2同學】 「策展現場」大家開始不分彼此合作,關係變的更緊密了 62
七、【創業與實踐M2同學】「策展現場」打破規劃合作,引動即興的補位合作 63
八、【創業與實踐M2同學】在「策展現場」,團隊關係的加速流變:我們是團隊了 64
九、【創業與實踐T同學】「策展現場」給予突發情境,啟動持續的創造 65
第三節 製作遊戲事件 66
一、【創業管理S同學】「製作遊戲」改變學習者的自我學習歷程,從被動到主動的持續學習和探索 66
二、【創業管理S同學】於「製作遊戲」中,他人經驗啟動內在反思與潛在行動探索 66
二、【創業管理C同學】從「製作遊戲」的過程,有了新自信 67
三、【創業管理C同學】從「製作遊戲」實作,開啟關係的連結與改變 67
四、【創業管理P同學】從「製作遊戲」覺察組員經驗,作為意義協商的基礎參照,啟動潛在可能的探索 67
五、【創業管理P同學】從「製作遊戲」的行動裡,讓成員關係昇華,成為關係緊密的玩伴 67
六、【創業管理M1同學】「製作遊戲」啟動對在地的覺察 69
七、【創業管理M1同學】從「製作遊戲」體驗從無到有的意義協商與現場的即時創作 70
第四節 課堂成果反思 72
一、【創業管理C同學】「課堂成果反思」對創業概念的重新認識,從結果到歷程 72
二、【創業與實踐G同學】在「課堂成果反思」中,對創業概念的重新解構 72
三、【創業與實踐L同學】「課堂成果反思」,促成自我與創業的重新理解 73
第五節 課堂對話事件 75
一、【創業與實踐M2同學】「課堂對話」觸發持續的反思 75
二、【創業與實踐L同學】在「課堂對話」中踏出自我框架的第一步 75
第六節 無目的觀察事件 75
一、【創業管理S同學】「無目的觀察」的課程活動,促使過去學習經驗的解構及主體學習意識的覺醒 75
第七節 覺察他人經驗經驗 76
一、【創業管理P同學】從「覺察他人經驗」啟動觀察者的認同 76
第八節 小組討論 77
一、【創業管理P同學】當「小組討論」意見不合時,藉由原型製作啟動新的可能 77
第九節、在小房間裡生活 78
一、【創業管理P同學】「在小房間裡生活」中,從把遊戲做對,到想把遊戲做的更好 78
二、【創業管理P同學】「在小房間裡生活」讓成員關係的連結增強 78
第十節 九宮圖實作事件 79
(一)【創業與實踐M2同學】從「九宮圖實作」帶來新的思考模式 79
第十一節 美食地圖製作事件 79
(一)「美食地圖製作」讓團隊從個別到整體的整合 79
第十二節 學習者三菱鏡分析表格應用 81
一、事件作為學習者開創觀察的切面 81
二、學習者三菱鏡應用 81
第五章 研究發現:學習者的開創學習歷程 83
第一節 關鍵事件促成學習經驗的對話與解構,引動差異自我的覺醒 83
一、實做引動關鍵學習事件衝撞既有經驗 83
二、啟動自我經驗的對話(dialogue) 84
三、從自我對話中引動批判性思考 85
四、差異自我的覺醒 86
第二節 學習者於實作中進入隱勢的探索與實現,引動差異融合的實現 88
一、關鍵議題做為隱勢的探索起點 89
二、具開放性與他者的意義協商 92
三、意義開放啟動創造性探索 93
四、融合彼此差異的實現 95
第三節 啟動集體關係重構,流變為關係開創共同體 98
一、學習小組作為實作共同體 98
二、流變為關係導向的開創共同體 100
(一)實作導向的關係回應情境 100
(二)能耐導向的關係連結 101
(三)場域裡情感關係連結增強 102
(四)實踐裡的情感關係脈絡 104
第六章 結論與討論 109
第一節 結論:開創學習做為他者的持續流變 109
一、實作裡的開創學習是什麼? 109
二、學習者在實作中如何產生開創學習? 110
第二節 討論與創業教育教學實務建議 112
附件 125
一、創業管理:C1小組 125
二、創業與實踐:A2小組 126
三、創業與實踐:B2小組 128
四、表5:學習者事件改變分類表 130









圖表目錄
圖1 臺灣創業教育相關院校統計 6
圖2 臺灣創業教育修課總人數 6
圖3 106學年度臺灣創業相關課程開課學院 8
圖4 逐字稿事件整理圖 40
圖5 逐字稿整理與建檔 41
圖6 差異自我覺醒歷程 87
圖7 隱勢探索與實現,引動融合彼此差異的實現歷程 97
圖8 啟動集體關係重構,流變為關係開創共同體 108

表1 臺灣創業相關課程開設學校列表 7
表2 學習者訪談表 39
表3 學習者的事件故事件數和心得報告筆記統計表 42
表4「學習者事件改變」分類表 46
表5「從改變到意義」分類表 47
表6「從意義到意義單元」分類表 48
表7「從意義到意義單元」分類表 49
表8 學習者事件統計表 51
表9 各組關鍵議題表 90
表10 實作共同體辨識表 99
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