論文使用權限 Thesis access permission：自定論文開放時間 user define
校內 Campus：開放下載的時間 available 2017-02-18
校外 Off-campus：開放下載的時間 available 2017-02-18
How to retain talent and motivate individual performance through informal development network within organization?
Number of pages
陳世哲, 林鉦棽, 温金豐
Shyh-Jer Chen; Cheng-Chen Lin; Jin-Feng Uen
Date of Exam
Date of Submission
job performance, informal development network, density of network, intention to stay, In-degree centrality
本論文已被瀏覽 5690 次，被下載 463 次
The thesis/dissertation has been browsed 5690 times, has been downloaded 463 times.
The study applied for a social network analysis tool and HLM method to analysis cross level dataset which will specify an integrated ‘meso’ framework of linking diversified relationships and employees’ attitudes and behavior within the work group settings. The effective sample size of this study collected by whole completed survey involved 317 employees within 26 different workgroups representing diversified industries in Taiwan. This study provided evidence that density of informal development network (informal network, advice network, and mentoring network) are related to both employees’ intention to stay and individual job performance. As hypothesized, both In-degree centrality of advice network was positively related to individual job performance. Perceived career success was positively related to in-degree centrality of advice network. In-degree centrality of friendship network was negatively related to intention to stay. Furthermore, Density of mentoring network will be positively related to intention to stay and individual job performance. Density of advice network was related negatively to individual job performance and density of friendship was related positively to individual job performance. The effect of in-degree centrality of advice network on individual job performance will be partially mediated by mediating variable - perceived career success as well as the effect of in-degree centrality of friendship network will be partially mediated by mediating variable - perceived career success.
目次 Table of Contents
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF CONTENTS…………………………………..……………………..………..vi
LIST OF TABLES ……………………………………………………. viii
LIST OF FIGURES ix
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background of the Study 2
1.2 Motivation of the Research 4
1.3 Purposes of the Study 5
CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW 10
2.1 The Development of Social Network Analysis 10
2.2 Networks Structure: Closure and Structural Holes 16
2.3 Network Ties and Position 19
2.4 Informal Development Network within Organization 23
2.5 The Relations Context in Chinese Society 29
2.6 The comparative perspective of talents’ retention and development in the Chinese and Western Societies 31
2.7 Individual Job Performance 35
2.8 Intention to stay 36
2.9 Perceived Career Success 40
2.10 Conceptual Background and Hypotheses Building 40
CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY 54
3.1 Conceptual Research Framework 54
3.2 Sample and Data Collection 56
3.3 Instruments Development and Variables Measurement 57
3.4 Data Analysis Procedure and Statistical Methods 64
CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS AND RESULTS 72
4.1 The Background of the Sample 72
4.2 Quantitative Data Analysis Methods and Results 73
CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION 89
5.1 Research Conclusions 89
5.2 Theoretical Contributions 90
5.3 Managerial Implications 91
5.4 Significance of the Study 92
5.5 Research Limitation 94
5.6 Future Research Directions 95
APPENDIX I: Sample Survey Questionnaire (in Chinese) 112
APPENDIX II: Name Code Synopsis (in Chinese) 115
APPENDIX III: Sample of followed up letter (in Chinese) 117
APPENDIX IV: Sample of followed up letter (in Chinese) 118
APPENDIX V: Questionnaires Items of Individual Level Variable (in English) 119
APPENDIX VI: Questionnaires Items of Network Variables (in English) 120
APPENDIX VII: Examples of the Graphic of Friendship Network 121
LIST OF TABLES
Table 2-1: Conceptualizations of Mentoring and Informal Developmental Network 25
Table 3-1: Eight Steps to Conducting a Social Network Analysis 66
Table 3-2: The Sample of Matrix Data 69
Table 3-3: Standardized Score of Degree Centrality 70
Table 4-1: Results of the Cronbach’s Alpha Reliability Analysis Scale on the Variables 75
Table 4-2: Descriptive Statistics and Correlations for Individual-Level Variables 75
Table 4-3: Descriptive Statistics and Correlations for Group-Level Variables 76
Table 4-4: Hierarchical linear modeling results for direct effect and mediation test on indiviudal job performance … 80
Table 4-5: Hierarchical linear modeling results for direct effect and mediation test on intention to stay 84
Table 4-6: Hierarchical linear modeling results for direct effect of density of informal development network on individal job performance 86
Table 4-7: Hierarchical linear modeling results for direct effect of density of mentoriing network on intention to stay 86
Table 5-1: The results of Hypotheses Testing 89
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 2-1: The sociometric star 12
Figure 2-2: A Hawthorne sociogram 12
Figure 2-3: A sample of an Adjacency matrix 13
Figure 2-4: A sample of directed graph. 13
Figure 2-5: A sample of clique graph. 14
Figure 2-6: Samples of a Structural Bridge 19
Figure 2.7: Degree and Betweenness Centrality 21
Figure 2-8: Sample of a Closeness Centrality 22
Figure 2-9: The Steers and Mowday Model 38
Figure 2-10: The Causal Model of Turnover 39
Figure 3-1: Research framework in this study. 55
Figure 3-2: The Sample of Socio-gram 69
Figure 3-3: A sample graph of Network about degree centrality and Betweenness centrality 70
Figure A: Friendship Network of Consultant Group – C01B:Q1 121
Figure B: Friendship Network of Consultant Group – C01B:Q3 122
Figure C: Friendship Network of Consultant Group – C01B:Q& 123
Figure D: Friendship Network of the Sales Group:Q1 124
Figure E: Friendship Network of the Sales Group:Q3 125
Figure F: Friendship Network of the Sales Group:Q7 126
Argyris, Chris 1960. Understanding organizational behavior. Homewood, IL: Dorsey.
Aryee, S., Chay, Y. W., & Tan, H. 1994. An examination of the antecedents of subjective career success among managerial samples in Singapore. Human Relations, 47: 487-509.
Baldwin, T. T., Bedell, M. D., & Johnson, J. L. 1997. The social fabric of a team-based M.B.A. program: Network effects on student satisfaction and performance. Academy of Management Journal, 40: 1369-1397.
Bandura, A. 1990. Perceived self-efficacy in the exercise of personal agency. Applied Sport Psychology, 2: 128-163.
Bandura, A. 1997. Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: W. H. Freeman and Company.
Barabasi, A. L. 2002. Linked: The new science of networks. New York: Perseus Publishing.
Barley, S. R. 1990. The alignment of technology and structure through roles and networks. Administrative Science Quarterly, 35: 61-103.
Bartlett, Christopher A. 2001. Microsoft: Competing on talent (A). Boston: Harvard Business School.
Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. 1986. The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychology research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51: 1173-1182.
Bayazit, M., & Mannix, E. A. 2003. Should I stay or should I go? Predicting team members’ intention to remain in the team. Small Group Resource, 34: 390-321.
Behn, Bruce K., Riley, Richard A., & Yang, Ya-wen. 2005. The value of an heir apparent in succession planning. Corporate Governance: An International Review, 13(2): 168-177.
Berman, E. M., West, J. P., & Richter, Jr., M. N. 2002. Workplace relations: Friendship patterns and consequences (according to managers). Public Administration Review, 62: 217-230.
Bersin & Associates, 2008. Talent Management FactBook : Global Trends, Facts and Strategies in Corporate Talent Management. UK: Bersin & Associates.
Bian, Yanjie, & Ang, Soon 1997. Guanxi networks and job mobility in China and Singapore. Social Force, 75(3): 985.
Bliese, P. D. 1964. Within-group agreement, non-independence, and reliability: Implications for data aggregation and analysis. In K. J. Klein & S. W. J. Kozlowski (Eds.), Multilevel Theory, Research, and Methods in Organizations: Foundations, Extensions, and New Directions. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Bonacich, P. 1987. Power and centrality: A family of measures. American Journal of Sociology, 92: 1170-1182.
Borgatti, S., & Cross, R. 2003. A social network view of organizational learning: Relational and structural dimensions of “know who”. Management Science, 49: 432-445.
Borgatti, S. P. 2002. NetDraw: Graph visualization software. Harvard: Analytic Technologies.
Borgatti, S. P., Everett, M. G., & Freeman, L. C. 2002. Ucinet 6 for windows. Harvard: Analytic Technologies.
Bouty, I. 2000. Interpersonal and interaction influences on informal resource exchanges between R&D researchers across organizational boundaries. Academy of Management Journal, 43: 50-65.
Brass, D. J., & Burhkart, M. 1992. Centrality and power in organizations. In N. Nohria & R. G. Eccles (Eds.), Networks and Organizations. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
Brass, D. J. 1984. Being in the right place: A structural analysis of individual influence in an organization. Administrative Science Quarterly, 29: 518-539.
Brass, D. J. 2000. Networks and frog ponds trends in multilevel research. In K. L. Klein & S.W.J. Kozlowski (Eds.), Multilevel Theory, Research and Methods in Organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Brass, D. J., & Labianca, G. 1999. Social capital, the social ledger, and social resources management. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic.
Brass, D. J., Galaskiewicz, J., Greve, H., & Tsai, W. 2004. Taking stock of networks and organizations: A multilevel analysis. The Academy of Management Journal, 47: 795-819.
Breiger, R. L. 1988. The duality of persons and groups. In B. Wellman & S. D. Berkowitz (Eds.), Social structures: A network approach. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Brislin, R. W. 1980. Translation and content analysis of oral and written material. In H. C. Triandis & J. W. Berry (Eds.), Handbook of cross-cultural psychology: Methodology. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Britt, J. 2003. It’s time to get serious about succession planning. HR Magazine, 48(11): 12.
Brown, J. S., & Duguid, P. 2000. The social life of information. Cambridge: Harvard Business School Press.
Bryk, A. S., & Raudenbush, S. W. 1992. Hierarchical linear models: Applications and data analysis methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
Bullis, C., & Bach, B. W., 1991. An explication and test of communication network content and multiplexity as predictors of organizational identification. Western Journal of Speech Communication, 55: 180-197.
Bulte, C. van den, & Wuyts, S. 2007. Social networks in marketing, marketing science institute. Cambridge, MA: Marketing Science Institute.
Burt, R. S. 1980. Models of network structure. Annual Review of Sociology, 6(1): 79-141.
Burt, R. S. 1992. Structural Holes: the social structure of competition. Cambridge: Oxford University Press.
Burt, R. S. 2007. Secondhand brokerage: Evidence on the importance of local structure for managers, bankers, and analysts. Academy of Management Journal, 50(1): 119-148.
Cappelli, P. 2000. A market-driven approach to retaining talent. Harvard Business Review, 78(1): 103.
Carley, K. 1991. A theory of group stability. American Sociological Review, 56(3): 331-354.
Carley, K. M., & Krackhardt, D. 1996. Cognitive inconsistencies and non-symmetric friendship. Social Networks, 18(1): 1-27.
CedarCrestone. 2008. CedarCrestone 2008-2009 HR systems survey: HR Technologies, Service Delivery Approaches, and Metrics. 11th Annual Edition.
Chambers, E. G., Foulon, M., Handfield-Jones, H., Hankin, S. M., & Michaels, E. G., III. 1998. The war for talent. The McKinsey Quarterly, 3: 44-57.
Chandler, D. E., & Kram, K. E. 2005. Applying an adult development perspective to developmental networks. Career Development International, 10: 548-566.
Charan, R., & Colvin, G. 1999. Why CEOs fail. Fortune, 139(12): 68-78.
Chen, G. H., Lee, Y. H., & Ko, Y. T. 2007. How could the invisible power of informal network inspire contextual performance? Journal of Human Resource Management, 7(3): 91-115.
Claro, D. P., & Neto, S. A. L. 2009. Sales managers’ performance and social capital: The impact of an advice network. Brazilian Administration Review, 6(4): 316-330.
Coleman, J. S. 1988. Social capital in the creation of human capital. American Journal of Sociology, 94(Supplement): S95-S120.
Conway, N., & Briner, R. B. 2009. Fifty years of psychological contract research: What do we know and what are the main challenges? In G. P. Hodgkinson & J. K. Ford (Eds.), International review of industrial and organizational psychology. Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
Cook, K. S., & Emerson, R. M. 1978. Power, equity, and commitment in exchange networks. American Sociological Review, 43: 721-739.
Cooper, C. L. 1999. The changing psychological contract at work. European Business Journal, 11: 115-118.
Corporate Leadership Council 2003. High-impact succession management: From succession planning to strategic executive talent management.
Coyle-Shapiro, J. A-M., & Conway, N. 2004. The employment relationship through the lens of social exchange. In J. A-M. Coyle-Shapiro, L. M. Shore, M. S. Taylor, & L. E. Tetrick (Eds.), The employment relationship: Examining psychological and contextual perspectives. New York: Oxford University Press.
Cross, R., & Parker, A. 2004. The hidden power of social networks: Understanding how work really gets done in organizations. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
Cross, R., & Prusak, L. 2002. The people who make organizations go or stop. Harvard Business Review, 80(6): 104-112.
Cross, R., Nohria, N., & Parker, A. 2002. Six myths about informal networks and how to overcome them. MIT Sloan Management Review, 43(3): 67-75.
Davidson, L. R., & Duberman, L. 1982. Friendship: Communication and interactional patterns in same-sex dyads. Sex Roles, 8: 809-821.
De Janasz, S. C., Sullivan, S. E., & Whiting, V. 2003. Mentor networks and career success: Lessons for turbulent times. Academy of Management Executive, 17(4): 78-91.
Dess, G. G., & Shaw, J. D. 2001. Voluntary turnover, social capital, and organizational performance. Academy of Management Review, 26: 446-456.
Dillman, D.A. 1978. Mail and telephone surveys: The total design method. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Dobrow, S. R., & Higgins, M. C. 2005. Development networks and professional identity: A longitudinal study. Career Development International, 10: 567-583.
Dreher, G., & Ash, R. 1990. A comparative study of mentoring among men and women in managerial, professional and technical position. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75: 525-535.
Fagenson, E. A. 1989. The mentor advantage: Perceived career/job experiences of protégés versus non- protégés. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 10(4): 309-320.
Fagenson-Eland, E. A., Marks, M. A., & Amendola, K. L. 1997. Perceptions of mentoring relationships. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 51: 29-42.
Fancher, Lori Powers 2007. The influence of organizational culture on the implementation of succession planning. A dissertation of doctor of philosophy in the Andrew Young School of Policy Studies of Georgia State University.
Fei, Xiaotong. 1985. Xiangtu zhongguo (peasant China), Beijing: Sanlian shudian, pp.21-35.
Forehand, G. A., & Gilmer, B. H. 1964. Environmental variation in studies of organizational behavior. Psychological Bulletin, 62: 361-382.
Freeman, L. 1977. A set of measures of centrality based on betweenness. Sociometry, 40(1): 35-41.
Freeman, L. C., S.P. Borgatti, S. P., & White, D.R. 1991. Centrality in valued graphs: a measure of betweenness based on network flow, Social Networks, 13: 141-154.
Freeman, L. C. 1979. Centrality in social networks: Conceptual clarification. Social Networks, 1: 215-239.
Friedkin, N. 1980. A test of structural features of Granovetter’s strength of weak ties theory. Social networks, 2: 411-422.
Friedkin, N. E., & Johnsen, E. C. 1999. Social influence networks and opinion change. Advances in Group Processes, 16: 1-29.
Friedman, R. A., & Holtom, B. 2002. The effects of network groups on minority employee turnover intentions. Human Resource Management, 41: 405-421.
Friedman, Stewart D.1986. Succession system in large corporations: Characteristics and correlates of performance. Human Resource Management, 25(2): 191-213.
Getty, C. 1993. Planning successfully for succession planning. Training and Development, 47: 31-33.
Goodman, L. A. 1961. Snowball sampling. Annuals of Mathematical Statistics, 32(1): 148-170.
Goodwin, V. L., Bowler, W. M., & Whittington, J. L. 2009. A social network perspective on LMX relationships: Accounting for the instrumental value of leader and follower networks. Journal of Management, 35(4): 954-980.
Granovetter, M. S. 1973. The strength of weak ties. American Journal of Sociology, 78: 1360-1380.
Granovetter, M. S.1985. Economic action and social structure: The problem of embeddedness. American Journal of Sociology, 91: 481-510.
Guenther, R. L. 2004. Is it time to replace your replacement-planning strategy? Harvard Management Update, 9(4): 3-5.
Guzzo, R. A., & Shea, G. P. 1992. Group performance and intergroup relations in organizations. In M.D. Dunette & L.M. Hough (Eds.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology. Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologists Press.
Hackman, J. R., Pearce, J. L., & Wolfe, J. C. 1978. Effects of changes in job characteristics on work attitudes and behavior: A naturally occurring quasi-experiment. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 21: 289-304.
Hall, Douglas T. 1986. Dilemmas in linking succession planning to individual executive learning. Human Resource Management, 25(2): 235-265.
Hansen, M. T. 1999. The search-transfer problem: The role of weak ties in sharing knowledge across organizational subunits. Administrative Science Quarterly, 44: 82-111.
Hatala, J. P. 2006. Social network analysis in human resource development: A new methodology. Human Resource Development Review, 5: 45-71.
Hatala, J. P., & Fleming, P. R. Making transfer climate visible: Utilizing social network analysis to facilitate the transfer of training. Human Resource Development Review, 6(1): 1-31.
Hess, J. A. 2000. Maintaining nonvoluntary relationships with disliked partners: An investigation into the use of distancing behavior. Human Communication Research, 26: 458-488.
Higgins, M. C. 2000. The more, the merrier? Multiple developmental relationships and work satisfaction. Journal of Management Development, 19(4): 277-296.
Higgins, M. C., & Kram, K. E. 2001. Reconceptualizing mentoring at work: A developmental network perspective. Academy of Management Review, 26(2): 264-288.
Higgins, M. C. & Thomas, D. A. 2001. Constellations and careers: Toward understanding the effects of multiple developmental relationships. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 22: 223-247.
Ho, V. T. 2005. Social influence on evaluations of psychological contract fulfillment. Academy of Management Review, 30: 113-118.
Hom, P. W., Griffeth, R. W., & Sellaro, C. L. 1984. The validity of Mobley’s 1979 model of employee turnover. Organizational Behavior and Human Resource, 34: 141-174.
Houkes, I., Janssen, P. P. M., de Jonge, J., & Nijhuis, F. J. N. 2003. Specific relationships between work characteristics and intrinsic work motivation, burnout, and turnover intention: A Multi-sample analysis. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 10: 1-23.
House, R., Rousseau, D. M., & Thomas-Hunt, M. 1995. The meso paradigm: A framework for integration of micro and macro organizational. In L. L. Cummings & B. Staw (Eds.), Research in organizational behavior. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
Hsu, L. K. Francis 1981. Americans and Chinese. Honolulu: The University Press of Hawaii.
Huang, Tung Chun 1999. Who should follow? Factors affecting the adoption of succession plans in Taiwan. Long Range Planning, 32(6): 609-616.
Hubbell, C. H. 1965. An input-output approach to clique identification, Sociometry, 28: 377–399.
Hung, C. M. 2007. The influence of social network centrality on technological innovation: Moderated by asset specificity. Journal of Human Resource Management, 7(1): 87-108.
Hunt, D. M., & Michael, C. 1983. Mentorship: A career training and development tool. Academy of Management Review, 8(3): 475-485.
Hwang, K. K. 1987. Face and favor: The Chinese power game. American Journal of Sociology, 92: 944-974.
Ibarra, H. 1992. Homophily and differential returns: Sex differences in network structure and access in an advertising firm. Administrative Science Quarterly, 37: 422-447.
Ibarra, H. 1993. Network centrality, power and innovation involvement: Determinants of technical and administrative roles. Academy of Management Journal, 36(3): 471-501.
Ibarra, H. & Andrews, S. B. 1993. Power, social influence, and sense making: Effects of network centrality and proximity on employee perceptions. Administrative Science Quarterly, 38: 277-303.
Ibarra, H., & Smith-Lovin, L. 1997. Creating tomorrow’s organization: A handbook for future research in organizational behavior. Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons.
Jablin, F. M. 1987. Organizational entry, assimilation, and exit. In F. M. Jablin, L. L. Putnam, K. H. Roberts, & L. M. Porter (Eds.), Handbook of organizational communication: An interdisciplinary perspective. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Joiner, Theresa A., Bartram, Timothy, & Garreffa, Terese 2004. The effects of mentoring on perceived career success, commitment and turnover intentions. Journal of American Academy of Business, 5(1): 164-170.
Jones, T.M. 1991. Ethical decision making by individuals in organizations: An issue-contingent model. Academy of Management Review, 20: 404-437.
Judge, T. A., & Bretz, R. D. 1992. The effects of work values on job choice decision. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77: 261-271.
Karaevil, A. & Hall, D. T. 2003. Growing leaders for turbulent times: Is succession planning up to the challenge? Organizational Dynamics, 32(1): 62-79.
Katz, L. 1953. A new index derived from sociometric data analysis. Psychometrika, 18: 39-43
Kesner, I. F. 1989. Succession planning. Credit, 15: 29-34.
Kilduff, Martin, & Tsai, Wenpin 2007. Social networks and organizations. London: SAGE Publications Ltd.
Kim, Soonhee 2003. Linking employee assessments to succession planning. Public Personnel Management, 33(4): 533-547.
King, Y. C. Ambrose 1985. The individual and group in Confucianism: A relational perspective. In Donald J. Munro (Ed.), Individualism and Holism: Studies in Confucian and Taoist Values (pp.62-64). Ann Arbor: Center for Chinese Studies, The University of Michigan.
King, Y. C. Amborse 1991. Kuan-hsi and network building: A sociological interpretation. Daedalus, 120(2): 67.
Klein, K. J., Lim, B. C., Saltz, J. L., & Mayer, D. M. 2004. How do they get there? An examination of the antecedents of the centrality in team networks. Academy of Management Journal, 47: 952-963.
Klein, K. J., Palmer, S. L., & Conn, A. B. 2000. Interorganizational relationships: A multilevel perspective. In K. L. Klein & S. W. J. Kozlowski (Eds.), Multilevel Theory, Research and Methods in Organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Kleinman, G., Siegel, P. H., & Eckstein, C. 2001. Mentoring and learning: The case of CPA firms. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 22(1): 22-34.
Korman, A. K., Wittig-Berman, U., & Lang, D. 1981. Career success and personal failure: Alienation in professional and managers. Academy of Management Journal, 24(2): 342-360.
Krackhardt, D. 1990. Assessing the political landscape: Structure, cognition, and power in organization. Administrative Science Quarterly, 35(2): 342-369.
Krackhardt, D. 1992. The strength of strong ties: The importance of philos in organizations. In N. Nohria & R. C. Eccles (Eds.), Networks and Organizations Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
Krackhardt, D., & Hanson, J. 1993. Informal networks: The company behind the chart. Harvard Business Review, 71(4): 104-111.
Krackhardt, D., & Stern, R. 1988. Informal networks and organizational crises: an experimental simulation. Social Psychology Quarterly, 51(2): 123-140.
Krackhardt, D. M., & Porter, L. W. 1985. When friends leave: A structural analysis of the relationship between turnover and stayers’ attitudes. Administrative Science Quarterly, 30: 242-261.
Krackhardt, D. M., & Porter, L. W. 1986. The snowball effect: Turnover embedded in communication networks. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71: 50-55.
Kram, K. E. 1985. Mentoring at work: Developmental relationships in organizational life, Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman & Co.
Laumann, E. O., Marsden, P. V., & Prensky, D. 1983. The boundary specification problem in network analysis. In R. S. Burt & M. J. Minor (Eds.), Applied network analysis. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Lee, Y. H., Yang, L. S., Wan, K. M., Chen, G. H. 2010. Interactive effects of personality and friendship networks on contextual performance. Social Behavior and Personality, 38(2): 197-208.
Leibman, M., Bruer, R. A., & Maki, B. R. 1996. Succession management: The next generation of succession planning. Human Resource Planning, 19(3): 16-29.
Levinson, Harry 1962. Men, management and mental health. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Lewin, Kurt 1951. Field theory in social science. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Liang, Shuming 1987. Zhongguo wenhua yaoyi. The essential features of Chinese culture. Hong Kong: Sanlian shudian.
Lin, N., Fu, Y. C. & Hsung, R. M. 2001. The position generator: Measurement techniques for investigation of social capital. In N. Lin, K. Cook, & R. Burt (Eds.), Social Capital: Theory and Research. New York: Aldine De Gruyter.
Lincoln, J. R., & Miller, J. 1979. Work and friendship ties in organizations: A comparative analysis of relational networks. Administrative Science Quarterly, 24: 181-199.
Luo, Jar-Der 2005. Particularistic trust and general trust: A network analysis in Chinese organizations. Management and Organization Review, 1(3): 437-458.
Marshall, A. A. & Stohl, C. 1993. Participating as participation: A network approach. Communication Monographs, 60: 137-157.
McAlearney, Ann Scheck 2008. Using leadership development programs to improve quality and efficiency in healthcare. Journal of Healthcare Management, 53(5): 319-331.
McDonald, M. L., Khanna, P., & Westphal, J. D., 2008. Getting them to think outside the circle: Corporate governance, CEOs’ external advice networks, and firm performance. Academy of Management Journal, 51(3): 453-475.
McFarlin, D. B., & Sweeney, P. D. 1992. Distributive and procedural justice as predictors of satisfaction with personal and organizational outcomes. Academy of Management Journal, 35: 626-637.
Mcpherson, J. M., & Smith-Lovin, L. 1987. Homophily in voluntary organizations: Status distance and the composition of face-to-face groups. American Sociological Review, 52: 370-379.
Mezias, J. M., & Scandura, T. A. 2005. A needs-driven approach to expatriate adjustment and career development: A multiple mentoring perspective. Journal of International Business Studies, 36: 519-538.
Miller, H. E., Katerberg, R., & Hulin, C. L. 1979. An evaluation of the Mobley, Horner, and Hollingsworth model of employee turnover. Journal of Applied Psychology, 64(5): 509-517.
Mintzberg, H. 1983. Power in and around organizations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Mitchell, T. R., Holtom, B. C., Lee, T. W., Sablynski, C. J. & Erez, M. 2001. Why people stay: Using job embeddedness to predict voluntary turnover. Academy of Management Journal, 44: 1102-1121.
Mobley, W. H., & Hollingsworth, A. T. 1978. An evaluation of precursors of hospital employee turnover. Journal of Applied Psychology, 63(4): 408-414.
Molloy, J. C. 2005. Developmental networks: Literature review and future research. Career Development International, 10: 536-548.
Molm, L. D., & Cool, K. S. 1995. Social exchange and exchange networks. In K. S. Cook, G. A. Fine, & J. S. House (Eds.), Sociological perspectives on social psychology. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Monge, P. R., Edwards, J. A., & Kirste, K. K. 1983. Determinants of communication network involvement: Connectedness and integration. Group and Organization Studies, 8: 83-111.
Morrison, Elizabeth Wolfe, & Robinson, Sandra L. 1997. When employees feel betrayed: A model of how psychological contract violation develops. Academy of Management Review, 22(1): 226-256.
Mullen, E. J. 1998. Vocational and psychosocial mentoring functions: Identifying mentors who serve both. Human Resource Quarterly, 9: 319-331.
Nabi, G. R. 1999. An investigation into the differential profile of predictors of objective and subjective career success. Career Development International, 4: 212-224.
Newcomb, A. F., Brady, J. E., & Hartup, W. W. 1979. Friendship and incentive conditions as determinants of children’s task-oriented social behavior. Child Development, 50: 878-881.
Nunnaly, J. 1978. Psychometric theory. New York: McGraw-Hill.
O’Reilly III, C. A., Chatman, J., & Caldwell, D. F. 1991. People and organizational culture: a profile comparison approach to assessing person-organization fit. Academy of Management Journal, 34(3): 487-516.
Parsons, Talcott 1949. The structure of social action. Glencoe. III: Free Press, pp.550-551.
Perry-Smith J. E., & Shalley, C. E. 2003. The social side of creativity: A static and dynamic social network perspective. Academy of Management Review, 28(1): 89-106.
Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J., & Podsakoff, N. P. 2003. Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88: 879-903.
Poole, M. E., Langan-Fox, J., & Omodei, M. 1993. Constrasting subjective and objective criteria as determinants of perceived career success: A longitudinal study. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 66: 39-54.
Porter, L. W., Steers, R. M., & Mowday, R. T., & Boulian, P. V. 1974. Organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and turnover among psychiatric technicians, Journal of Applied Psychology, 59: 603-609.
Porter, L. W. & Lawler, E. E. III.1965. Properties of organization structure in relation to job attitudes and job behavior. Psychological Bulletin, 64: 23-51.
Ragins, B. R., & Cotton, J. L. 1999. Mentor functions and outcomes: A comparison of men and women in formal and informal mentoring relationships. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84: 529-550.
Ragins, B. R., Cotton, J. L., & Miller, J. S. 2000. Marginal mentoring: The effects of type of mentor, quality of relationship, and program design on work and career attitudes. Academy of Management Journal, 43: 1177-1194.
Rhim, Jong C., Reluchette, Joy V., & Song, Inam 2006. Stock market reactions and firm performance surrounding CEO succession: Antecedents of succession and successor origin. Mid-American Journal of Business, 21(10), 21-30.
Robinson, W. S. 1950. Ecological correlations and the behavior of individuals. American Sociological Review, 15: 351-357.
Rousseau, D. M. 1995. Psychological contracts in organizations: Understanding written and unwritten agreements. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Rousseau, D. M. 1998. Psychological and implied contracts in organizations. Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, 2:121-139.
Saaty, T. L. 2005. Theory and applications of the analytic network process: Decision making with benefits, opportunities, costs and risks. Pittsburgh, PA: RWS Publications.
Scandura, T. A., & Viator, R. E. 1994. Mentoring in public accounting firms: An analysis of mentoring-protege relationships, mentoringship functions, and protege turnover intentions. Accounting, Organizations and Society, 19(8): 717-734.
Schein, E. H.1980. Organizational psychology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Schein, E. H. 1990. Organizational culture. American Psychologist, 45: 109-119.
Scott, J. 2000. Social network analysis: A handbook (2nd ed.). London: Sage.
Shah, P. R. 2002. Network destruction: The structural implications of downsizing. Academy of Management Journal, 43: 101-115.
Sharma, Pramodita, Chua, Jess H., & Chrisman, James J. 2000. Perceptions about the extent of succession planning in Canadian family firms. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, 17(3): 233-245.
Shaw, B. M. 1980. The consequences of turnover. Journal of Occupational Behaviour, 1: 253-273.
Shaw, J. D., Delery, J. E., Jenkins, D. G., & Gupta, N. 1998. An organizational-level analysis of voluntary and involuntary turnover. Academy of Management Journal, 41: 511-525.
Shaw, M. E. 1964. Communication networks. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology. New York: Academic Press.
Shen, Wei, & Cannella Jr., Albert A. 2002. Revisiting the performance consequence of CEO succession: The impacts of successor type, postsuccession senior executive turnover, and departing CEO tenure. Academy of Management Journal, 45(4): 717-733.
Shen, Wei, & Cannella, Jr., Albert A. 2003. Will succession planning increase shareholder wealth? Evidence from investor reactions to relay CEO successions. Strategic Management Journal, 24(2): 191-199.
Smith, H. W. 1995. Predicting stress in American-Japanese business relations. Journal of Asian Business, 12: 79-89.
Sparrowe, R. T., & Liden, R. C. 1997. Process and structure in leader-member exchange. Academy of Management Review, 22: 522-552.
Sparrowe, R. T., Liden, R. C., Wayne, S. J., & Kraimer, M. L. 2001. Social networks and the performance of individuals and groups. Academy of Management Journal, 44(2): 316-325.
Steers, R. M., & Mowday, R. T. 1981. Employee turnover and postdecision accommodation processes. In B. M. Staw & L. L. Cummings (Eds.), Research in organizational behavior. Greenwhich, CT: JAI Press.
Stevenson, W., & Gilly, M. 1991. Information processing and problem solving: The migration of problems through formal positions and network ties. Academy of Management Journal, 34: 918-928.
Sullivan, S. E. 1999. The changing nature of careers: A review and research agenda. Journal of Management, 25(3): 457-484.
Taylor, M. 1969. Influence structures. Sociometry, 32: 490-502
Tett, R. P., & Meyer, J. P. 1993. Job satisfaction, organizational commitment, turnover intention, and turnover: Path analyses based on meta-analytic findings. Personnel Psychology, 46: 259-293.
Tichy, N. M. 1981. Networks in organization. In P. C. Nystrom & W. H. Starbuck (Eds.), Handbook of organizational design. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Tichy, N. M., Tushman, M. L., & Fombrum, C. 1979. Social network analysis for organizations. Academy of Management Review, 4(4): 507-519.
Tsai, W. 2001. Knowledge transfer in intraorganizational networks: Effects of network position and absorptive capacity in business unit innovation and performance. Academy of Management Journal, 44: 996-1004.
Tsui, A. S., & Farh, J. L. 1997. Where guanxi matters: Relational demography and guanxi and technology. Work and Occupations, 24: 57-79.
Turban, D. B. & Dougherty, T. W. 1994. Role of protégé personality in receipt of mentoring and career success. Academy of Management Journal, 37(3): 688-702.
Uzzi, B. 1996. The sources and consequences of embeddedness for the economic performance of organizations. American Sociological Review, 61: 674-698.
Walumbwa, F. O., Avolio, B. J., & Zhu, W. C. 2008. How transformational leadership weaves its influence on individual job performance: the role of identification and efficacy beliefs. Personnel Psychology, 61: 793-825.
Wanous, John P., Poland, Timothy D., Premack, Stephen L., & Davis, K. Shannon 1992. The effects of met expectations on newcomer attitudes and behaviors: A review and meta-Wanous analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77: 288-297.
Wasserman, Noam 2003. Founder-CEO succession and the paradox of entrepreneurial success. Organization Science, 14(2): 149-172.
Wasserman, S., & Faust, K. 1994. Social Network Analysis: Methods and Applications. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Watts, D. 2003. Six Degrees: The Science of a Connected Age, Norton: New York.
Wells, S. 2003. Who’s next? HR Magazine, 48(11): 45-50.
Whitely, W., Dougherty, T. W., & Dreher, G. F. 1991. Relationship of career mentoring and socioeconomic origin to managers’ and professionals’ early career success. The Academy of Management Journal, 34(2): 331-351.
Whiteoak, J. W. 2007. The relationship among group process perceptions, goal commitment and turnover intention in small committee groups. Journal of Business Psychology, 22: 1-20.
Womack, Brantly 1991. Transfigured community: Neo-traditionalism and work unit socialism. China Quarterly, 126: 326-327.
論文使用權限 Thesis access permission：自定論文開放時間 user define
校內 Campus：開放下載的時間 available 2017-02-18
校外 Off-campus：開放下載的時間 available 2017-02-18