論文使用權限 Thesis access permission：校內校外均不公開 not available
校內 Campus：永不公開 not available
校外 Off-campus：永不公開 not available
The Relationships between Human Resource Systems and Employee Performance: The Mediating Effect of Psychological Contracts
Number of pages
林鉦棽, 鍾昆原, 黃良志
CHENG-CHEN LIN; KUEN-YUNG JONE; LIANG-CHIH HUANG
Date of Exam
Date of Submission
Resource-based View, Agency Theory, Transactional Cost Theory, Role Behavior, Human Resource Management, Psychological Contract
本論文已被瀏覽 5672 次，被下載 0 次
The thesis/dissertation has been browsed 5672 times, has been downloaded 0 times.
本研究主要的目的是藉由修改與延伸Lepak & Snell (1999)的人力資源結構來回答「當組織對不同類型的員工採取不同的人力資源統理策略時，員工會有何不同績效表現？」的研究問題。根據資源基礎觀點中的持久性競爭優勢（sustained competitive advantage），本研究先提出「複雜性」與「獨特性」二種員工特性，並據之將員工區分為核心、獨特性、複雜性與可複製性四種人力資源（人力資源結構）後，再分別根據代理理論與交易成本理論提出「行為控制」與「內部培育」二種人力資源統理策略，並提出代表與人力資源結構相對應之人力資源統理策略的人力資源管理結構。由於組織與員工間存在著一種互惠性交換關係，所以本研究接著利用代表員工對於其與組織間互惠性交換關係成分與狀態主觀看法的心理契約（psychological contract）來作為連結人力資源統理機制與員工績效的中介機制（心理契約結構），提出代表人力資源統理機制與員工績效間關係的績效結構。
根據172組（主管卷172份，員工卷806份）來自台灣上市公司的資料，本研究分別利用t檢定與階層線性模式（Hierarchical Linear Modeling）對人力資源管理結構與心理契約結構及績效結構進行檢驗。根據分析結果，本研究推論組織確實會對不同型態人力資源採用不同的人力資源統理策略，而不同的統理策略亦將引發出員工不同的績效表現。首先，對於高「複雜性」與高「獨特性」的核心人力資源，組織將會採用高「內部培育」與低「行為控制」的統理策略，而此統理策略除將形塑出該類型員工長期「持續期間」的心理契約特質外，亦將促進他（她）的「角色內行為」、「OCBI」與「OCBO」；反之，對於低「複雜性」與低「獨特性」的可複製性人力資源，組織將會採用低「內部培育」與高「行為控制」的統理策略，進而形塑出該類型員工特定「績效與酬賞關係」的心理契約特質與其「角色內行為」；其次，對於低「複雜性」與高「獨特性」的獨特性人力資源，組織將會採用高「內部培育」與高「行為控制」的統理策略，而此統理策略則將同時形塑出該類型員工長期「持續期間」與特定「績效與酬賞關係」的心理契約特質，並進而促進其「角色內行為」與「OCBO」；最後，針對高「複雜性」與低「獨特性」的複雜性人力資源，雖然根據理論可知組織會對其採用低「內部培育」與低「行為控制」的統理策略，但由於本研究認為組織的不做為將無法有效的形塑員工的心理契約特質與績效行為，所以該統理策略將無法形塑或促進複雜性人力資源的心理契約特質與績效行為。但由於複雜性人力資源對組織的持久性競爭優勢仍有其貢獻，因此組織將採取何種作為來形塑與促進其認知與績效行為，便是後續研究在探討組織人力資源管理措施與員工績效間關係時可能的取向之一。
The aim of this study is to discuss the query: “When organizations apply different human resource (HR) systems in managing their employees with different characteristics, what will be the employees’ possible performance patterns?” by modifying and extending Lepak & Snell’s (1999) HR architecture. According to employees’ contribution to the sustained competitive advantages (SCAs), we first identified two main characteristics of employees: complexity and uniqueness. The employees could be further categorized into core, unique, complex, and imitable HR and the HR architecture is thereby constructed. Furthermore, based on agency theory and transactional cost theory, we propose behavioral control and internal development as the two main strategies for managing employees with different characteristics: integration with HR architecture, and construction of human resource management (HRM) architecture. Finally, there are exchange relationships between employees and their organizations. Since psychological contracts reflect employees’ beliefs in the terms and conditions of a reciprocal exchange relationship between them and their employers (Rousseau, 1995), they are viewed as the best linking mechanism between HR systems and employee behaviors (Wright & Boswell, 2002). Accordingly, we adopted psychological contract perspective to discuss the relationships between HR systems and employees’ role behaviors and sequentially proposed the corresponding psychological contract architecture as well as the performance architecture.
Multilevel analysis and t-test of data from 172 Taiwanese datasets (172 copies from immediate managers and 806 from employees) revealed that different HR systems not only are applied to manage different types of employees but also elicit different patterns of employees’ performance. First, organizations would like to apply higher levels of internal development and lower levels of behavioral control in managing their core HR. These strategies caused employees to believe that they had a long-term exchange relationship with the organizations and simultaneously improve their in-role behaviors, OCBI, and OCBO. In contrast, organizations would like to apply lower levels of internal development and higher levels of behavioral control in managing their imitable HR. This governance made employees focus on specific performance-reward contingencies in their exchange relationships with the organizations, as well as to enhance their in-role behaviors. Next, organizations would like to apply higher levels of internal development and behavioral control in managing their unique HR. These strategies caused employees to believe that they had a long-term exchange relationship with the organizations, with an emphasis on specific performance-reward contingencies. For this reason, this HR system could prompt employees’ appropriate in-role behaviors and OCBO. Finally, according to the HRM architecture, an organization should theoretically apply a lower level of internal development and behavioral control in managing its complex HR. Since it is not possible to form employees’ psychological contract or create relevant role behaviors when organizations do not actively adopt specific strategies to manage them, we did not empirically examine the relationships between HR systems and employees’ complex role behaviors. However, complex HR still contributes to the SCAs. Accordingly, future research could focus on complex HR and explore which types of HR system would be beneficial in regard to their role behaviors.
目次 Table of Contents
林鉦棽 & 彭台光。2006。多層次管理研究：分析層次的概念、理論和方法。管理學報，23：649-675。
Alchian, A. A., & Demsetz, H. (1972). Production, information costs, and economic organization. The American Economic Review, 62, 777-795.
Argyris, C. (1960). Understanding organizational behavior. Homewood, IL: Dorsey
Arthur, J. B. (1992). The link between business strategy and industrial relations systems in American steel minimills. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 45, 488-506.
Arthur, W. B., Ermoliev, Y., & Kaniovski, Y. (1987). Path-dependent processes and the emergence of macro-structure. European Journal of Operations Research, 30, 294-303.
Bagozzi, R. P., & Yi, Y. (1988). On the evaluation of structural equation models. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 16, 74-94.
Barksdale, K., & Shore, L. M. (1997). A typological approach to examining psychological contracts. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 19, 731-744.
Barnard, C. I. (1938). The functions of the executive. MA: Harvard University Press.
Barney, J. (1991). Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Journal of Management, 17, 99-120.
Barney, J., & Ouchi, W. (1986). Organizational economics. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Barney, J. B., & Wright, P. M. (1998). On becoming a strategic partner: The role of human resources in gaining competitive advantage. Human Resource Management, 37, 31-46.
Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychology research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical consideration. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173-1182.
Bateman, T. S., & Organ, D. W. (1983). Job satisfaction and the soldier: The relationship between affect and employee "citizenship". Academy of Management Journal, 26, 587-595.
Bentler, P. M. (1980). Multivariate analysis with latent variables: Causal modeling. Annual Review of Psychology, 31, 419-456.
Borman, W. C., & Motowidlo, S. J. (Eds.). (1993). Expanding the criterion domain to include elements of contextual performance. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Boulding, K. E. (1956). General systems theory: The skeleton of science. Management Science, 2, 197-208.
Brief, A. P., & Motowidlo, S. J. (1986). Prosocial organizational behaviors. Academy of Management Review, 11, 710-725.
Brislin, R. W. (1970). Back-translation for cross-cultural research. Journal of Cross-cultural Psychology, 1, 185-216.
Brislin, R. W. (1986). The wording and translation of research instruments. In W. L. Lonner & J. W. Berry (Eds.), Field methods in cross-cultural research (pp. 137-164). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Campbell, J. P. (Ed.). (1990). Modeling the performance prediction problem in industrial and organizational psychology (2nd ed. Vol. 1). CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
Coase, R. H. (1937). The nature of the firm. Economica, 4, 386-405.
Coleman, v. I., & Borman, W. C. (2000). Investigating the underlying structure of the citizenship performance domain. Human Resource Management Review, 10, 25-44.
Cropanzano, R., & Mitchell, M. S. (2005). Social exchange theory: An interdisciplinary review. Journal of Management, 31, 874-900.
David, P. A. (1985). Clio and the economics of QWERTY. American Economic Review Proceedings, 75, 332-337.
Delaney, J. T., Lewin, D., & Ichniowski, C. (1989). Human resource policies and practices in American firms. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
Delery, J. E., & Doty, D. H. (1996). Modes of theorizing in strategic human resource management: Tests of universalistic, contingency, and configurational performance predictions. Academy of Management Journal, 39, 802-835.
Dubin, R. (1978). Theory building. New York: Free Press.
Ehrhart, M. (2004). Leadership and procedural justice climate as antecedents of unit-level organizational citizenship behavior. Personnel Psychology, 57, 61-94.
Ehrhart, M. G., & Naumann, S. E. (2004). Organizational citizenship behavior in work groups: A group norms approach. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89, 960-974.
Eisenberger, R., Huntington, R., Hutchison, S., & Sowa, D. (1986). Perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 500-507.
Eisenhardt, K. M. (1985). Control: Organizational and economic approaches. Management Science, 31, 134-150.
Eisenhardt, K. M. (1989). Agency theory: An assessment and review. Academy of Management Review, 14, 57-74.
Emerson, R. M. (1976). Social exchange theory. Annual Review of Sociology, 2, 335-362.
Farh, J. L., Zhong, C. B., & Organ, D. W. (2004). Organizational citizenship behavior in the People's Republic of China. Organization Science, 15, 241-253.
Fombrun, C. J., Tichy, N. M., & Devanna, M. A. (1984). Strategic human resource management. New York: Wiley.
George, J. M., & Brief, A. P. (1992). Feeling good-doing good: A conceptual analysis of the mood at work-organizational spontaneity. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 310-329.
Gouldner, A. W. (1960). The norm of reciprocity: A preliminary statement. Annual Sociological Review, 25, 161-178.
Graham, J. W. (1986). Organizational citizenship behavior informed by political theory Paper presented at the National Academy of Management meeting, Chicago.
Graham, J. W. (1989). Organizational citizenship behavior: Construct redefinition, operationalization, and Validation. Loyola University of Chicago, Department of Management.
Graham, J. W. (2000). Promoting civic virtue organizational citizenship behavior: Contemporary questions rooted in classical quandaries from political philosophy. Journal of Management, 20, 61-77.
Hirsch, P., Michaels, S., & Friedman, R. (1987). "Dirty hands" versus "clean models": Is sociology in danger of being seduced by economics? Theory and Society, 317-336.
Hofmann, D. A. (1997). An overview of the logic and rationale of hierarchical linear models. Journal of Management, 23, 723-744.
Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 1-55.
Hui, C., Lee, C., & Rousseau, D. M. (2004). Psychological contract and organizational citizenship behavior in China: Investigating generalizability and instrumentality. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89, 311-321.
Huselid, M. A. (1995). The impact of human resource management practices on turnover, productivity, and corporate financial performance. Academy of Management Journal, 38, 635-672.
Jöreskog, K. G., & Sörbom, D. (2006). LISREL 8.80. Scientific Software International.
James, L. R. (1982). Aggregation bias in estimates of perceptual agreement. Journal of Applied Psychology, 67, 219-229.
Jensen, M. (1983). Organization theory and methodology. Accounting Review, 56, 319-338.
Jensen, M. C., & Meckling, W. H. (1976). Theory of the firm: Managerial behavior, agency costs, and capital structure. Journal of Financial Economics, 3, 305-360.
Katz, D. (1964). The motivational basis of organizational behavior. Behavioral Science, 9, 131-146.
Katz, D., & Kahn, R. L. (1966). The social psychology of organizations (1st ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Katz, D., & Kahn, R. L. (1978). The social psychology of organizations. (2nd ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Klein, K. J., & Kozlowski, S. W. J. (2000). From micro to meso: Critical steps in conceptualizing and conducting multilevel research. Organizational Research Methods, 3, 211-236.
Koch, M. J., & McGrath, R. G. (1996). Improving labor productivity: Human resource management policies do matter. Strategic Management Journal, 17, 335-354.
Koslowski, S. W. J., & Klein, K. (2000). A multilevel approach to theory and research on organizations: Contextual, temporal, and emergent processes. In R. L. Kahn & S. W. J. Kozlowski (Eds.), Multilevel theory, research, and methods in organizations: Foundations, extensions, and new directions (pp. 3-90). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Lawler, E. E. (1986). High involvement management: Participative strategies for improving organizational performance. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Lawler, E. E. (1987). The design of effective reward systems. In J. W. Lorsch (Ed.), Handbook of organizational behavior (pp. 255-271). New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
Lee, M. B., & Chee, Y. (1996). Business strategy, participative human resource management and organizational performance: The case of South Korea. Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, 34, 77-94.
Lepak, D. P., & Snell, S. A. (1999). The human resource architecture: Toward a theory of human capital allocation and development. Academy of Management Review, 24, 31-48.
Lepak, D. P., & Snell, S. A. (2002). Examining the human resource architecture: The relationship among human capital, employment, and human resource configurations. Journal of Management, 28, 517-543.
LePine, J. A., Erez, A., & Johnson, D. E. (2002). The nature and dimensionality of organizational citizenship behavior: A critical review and meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 52-65.
Levinson, H., Price, C. R., Munden, K. J., Mandl, H. J., & Solley, C. M. (1962). Men, Management and Mental Health. Cambridge, MA.: Harvard University Press.
Liao, H. (2002). A cross level analysis of organizational citizenship behavior in work groups. unpublished doctoral dissertation,University of Minnesota.
MacKenzie, S. B., Podsakoff, P. M., & Fetter, R. (1991). Organizational citizenship behavior and objective productivity as determinants of managerial evaluations of salespersons' performance. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 123-150.
Macneil, I. R. (1985). Relational contracts: What we do and do not know. Wisconsin Law Review, 483-525.
McLean Parks, J. (1990). Organizational contracts: The effects of contractual specificity and social distance. unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Iowa.
Miles, R. E., & Snow, C. C. (1984). Designing strategic human resources systems. Organizational Dynamics, 13, 36-52.
Millward, L. J., & Brewerton, P. M. (1999). Contractors and their psychological contracts. British Journal of Management, 10, 253-274.
Moorman, R. H. (1991). Relationship between organizational justice and organizational citizenship behaviors: Do fairness perceptions influence employee citizenship? Journal of Applied Psychology, 76, 845-855.
Moorman, R. H., Niehoff, B. P., & Organ, D. W. (1993). Treating employees fairly and organizational citizenship behavior: Sorting the effects of job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and procedural justice. Employee Responsibilities & Rights Journal, 6, 209-225.
Morrison, E. W. (1994). Role definitions and organizational citizenship behavior: The importance of the employee's. Academy of Management Journal, 37, 1543-1567.
Motowidlo, S. J., Borman, W. C., & Schmit, M. J. (1997). A theory of individual difference in task and contextual performance. Human Performance, 10, 71-83.
Motowidlo, S. J., & Scotter, J. R. V. (1994). Evidence that task performance should be distinguished from contextual performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79, 475-480.
Murray, B., & Gerhart, B. (1998). An empirical investigation of a skill-based pay program and plant performance outcomes. Academy of Management Journal, 41, 68-78.
Niehoff, B. P., & Moorman, R. H. (1993). Justice as a mediator of the relationship between methods of monitoring and organizational citizenship behavior. Academy of Management Journal, 36, 527.
O'Reilly, C., III, & Chatman, J. (1986). Organizational commitment and psychological attachment: The effects of compliance, identification, and internalization on prosocial behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 492-499.
Organ, D. W. (1977). A reappraisal and reinterpretation of the satisfaction-cause- performance hypothesis. Academy of Management Review, 2, 46.
Organ, D. W. (1988). Organizational citizenship behavior. Lexington, MA: Lexington.
Organ, D. W. (1990). The motivational basis of organizational citizenship behavior. In B. M. Staw & L. L. Cummings (Eds.), Research in organizational behavior (Vol. 12, pp. 43-72). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
Organ, D. W. (1997). Organizational citizenship behavior: It’s construct clean-up time. Human Performance, 10, 85-97.
Organ, D. W., & Ryan, K. (1995). A meta-analysis review of attitudinal and dispositional predictors of organizational citizenship behavior. Personnel Psychology, 48, 775-793.
Osterman, P. (1994). How common is workplace transformation and who adopts it? Industrial & Labor Relations Review, 47, 173.
Ouchi, W. G. (1978). The transmission of control through organizational hierarchy. Administrative Science Quarterly, 21, 173-192.
Ouchi, W. G. (1979). A conceptual framework for the design of organizational control mechanism. Management Science, 25, 833-849.
Ouchi, W. G., & Maguire, M. A. (1975). Organizational control: Two functions. Administrative Science Quarterly, 20, 559-569.
Penrose, E. T. (1959). The theory of the growth of the firm. Oxford, London: Basil Blackwell.
Perrow, C. (1986). Complex organizations. New York: Random House.
Pfeffer, J. (1994). Competitive advantage through people: Unleashing the power of the work force. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
Pfeffer, J. (1997). New directions for organization theory: Problem and prospects. New York: Oxford University Press.
Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., & Bommer, W. H. (1996a). Meta-analysis of the relationships between Kerr and Jermier's substitutes for leadership and employee job attitudes, role perceptions, and performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81, 380-399.
Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., & Bommer, W. H. (1996b). Transformational leader behaviors and substitutes for leadership as determinants of employee satisfaction, commitment, trust, and organizational citizenship behaviors. Journal of Management, 22, 259-298.
Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Paine, J. B., & Bachrach, D. G. (2000). Organizational citizenship behaviors: A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research. Journal of Management, 26, 513-563.
Podsakoff, P. M., & McKenzie, S. B. (1994). Organizational citizenship behavior and sales unit effectiveness. Journal of Marketing Research, 31, 351-363.
Robinson, S. L., Kraatz, M. S., & Rousseau, D. M. (1994). Changing obligations and the psychological contract: A longitudinal study. Academy of Management Journal, 37, 137-152.
Robinson, S. L., & Morrison, E. W. (1995). Psychological contracts and OCB: The effect of unfulfilled obligations on civic virtue behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 16, 289-298.
Robinson, S. L., & Rousseau, D. M. (1994). Violating the psychological contract: Not the exception but the norm. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 15, 245-259.
Rousseau, D. M. (1989). Psychological and implied contracts in organizations. Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, 2, 121-139.
Rousseau, D. M. (1990). New hire perceptions of their own and their employer's obligations: a study of psychological contracts. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 11, 389-400.
Rousseau, D. M. (1995). Psychological contract in organizations: Understanding written and unwritten agreements. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Rousseau, D. M. (2000). Psychological contract inventory technical report (Technical Report): Heinz School of Public Policy and Graduate School of Industrial Administration.
Rousseau, D. M., & McLean Parks, J. (1993). The contracts of individuals and organizations. In L. L. Cummings & B. M. Staw (Eds.), Research in organizational behavior (Vol. 15, pp. 1-47). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
Rousseau, D. M., & Tijoriwala, S. A. (1998). Assessing psychological contracts: Issues, alternatives and measures. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 19, 679-695
Rousseau, D. M., & Wade-Benzoni, K. A. (1994). Linking strategy and human resource practices: How employee and customer contracts are created. Human Resource Management, 33, 463-489.
Schein, E. H. (1968). Organizational socialization and the profession of management. Industrial Management Review, 9, 1-16.
Sels, L., Janssens, M., & Brande, I. V. D. (2004). Assessing the nature of psychological contracts: a validation of six dimensions. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25, 461-488.
Smelser, N. J. (1995). Sociology (5th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Smith, C. A., Organ, D. W., & Near, J. P. (1983). Organizational citizenship behavior: Its nature and antecedents. Journal of Applied Psychology, 68, 653-663.
Snell, S. A. (1992). Control theory in strategic human resource management: The mediating effect of administrative information. Academy of Management Journal, 35, 292-327.
Snell, S. A., & Dean, J. W. (1992). Integrated manufacturing and human resource management: A human capital perspective. Academy of Management Journal, 35, 467-504.
Snell, S. A., & Youndt, M. A. (1995). Human resource management and firm performance: Testing a contingency model of executive controls. Journal of Management, 21, 711-737.
Snell, S. A., Youndt, M. A., & Wright, P. M. (1996). Establishing a framework for research in strategic human resource management: Merging resource theory and organizational learning. In G. R. Ferris (Ed.), Research in personnel and human resources management (pp. 61-90). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
Sobel, M. E. (1982). Asymptotic confidence intervals for indirect effects in structural equation models. Sociological Methodology, 13, 290-312.
Tansky, J. W. (1993). Justice and organizational citizenship behavior: What is the relationship? Employee Responsibilities & Rights Journal, 6, 195-207.
Tekleab, A. G., & Taylor, M. S. (2003). Aren’t there two parties in an employment relationship? Antecedents and consequences of organization-employee agreement on contract obligations and violations. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 24, 585-608
Thompson, J. D. (1967). Organization in action. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Van Dyne, L., Cummings, L., & Parks, J. (Eds.). (1995). Extra role behaviors: In pursuit of construct and definitional clarity (A bridge over muddied waters). Greenwich, CT: JAI.
Van Dyne, L., & LePine, J. A. (1998). Helping And Voice Extra-Role Behaviors: Evidence Of Construct And Predictive Validity. Academy of Management Journal, 41, 108-119.
Van Scotter, J. R., & Motowidlo, S. J. (1996). Interpersonal facilitation and job dedication as separate facets of contextual performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81, 525-531.
Volpe, C. E., Cannon-Bowers, J. A., Salas, E., & Spector, P. E. (1996). The impact of cross-training on team functioning: An empirical investigation. Human Factors, 38, 87-100.
Werner, J. M. (1994). Dimensions that make a difference: examining the impact of in-role and extra-role behaviors on supervisory ratings. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79, 98-107.
Wernerfelt, B. (1984). A resource-based view of the firm. Strategic Management Journal, 5, 171-180.
Williams, L. J., & Anderson, S. E. (1991). Job satisfaction and organizational commitment as predictors of organizational citizenship and in-role behaviors. Journal of Management, 17, 601-617.
Williamson, O. E. (1975). Markets and Hierarchies: Analysis and Antitrust Implications: A Study in the Economics of Internal Organization. London: Free Press.
Williamson, O. E. (1981). The economics of organization: The transaction cost approach. American Journal of Sociology, 87, 548-577.
Williamson, O. E. (1983). Credible commitments: Using hostages to support exchange. American Economic Review, 73, 519-540.
Williamson, O. E. (1985). The economic institutions of capitalism: Firms, markets, relational contracting. New York: Free Press.
Wright, P. M., & Boswell, W. R. (2002). Desegregating HRM: A review and synthesis of micro and macro human resource management research. Journal of Management, 28, 247-276.
Youndt, M. A., & Snell, S. A. (2004). Human resource configurations, intellectual capital, and organizational performance. Journal of Managerial Issues, 16, 337-360.
Youndt, M. A., Snell, S. A., Dean Jr, J. W., & Lepak, D. P. (1996). Human resource management, manufacturing strategy, and firm performance. Academy of Management Journal, 39, 836-866.
論文使用權限 Thesis access permission：校內校外均不公開 not available
校內 Campus：永不公開 not available
校外 Off-campus：永不公開 not available
您的 IP(校外) 位址是 18.104.22.168
Your IP address is 22.214.171.124
This thesis will be available to you on Indicate off-campus access is not available.