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博碩士論文 etd-0306109-013027 詳細資訊
Title page for etd-0306109-013027
論文名稱
Title
人力資源管理系統與員工績效之關係:心理契約的中介效果
The Relationships between Human Resource Systems and Employee Performance: The Mediating Effect of Psychological Contracts
系所名稱
Department
畢業學年期
Year, semester
語文別
Language
學位類別
Degree
頁數
Number of pages
95
研究生
Author
指導教授
Advisor
召集委員
Convenor
口試委員
Advisory Committee
口試日期
Date of Exam
2009-02-25
繳交日期
Date of Submission
2009-03-06
關鍵字
Keywords
代理理論、交易成本理論、資源基礎觀點、角色行為、人力資源管理、心理契約
Resource-based View, Agency Theory, Transactional Cost Theory, Role Behavior, Human Resource Management, Psychological Contract
統計
Statistics
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中文摘要
本研究主要的目的是藉由修改與延伸Lepak & Snell (1999)的人力資源結構來回答「當組織對不同類型的員工採取不同的人力資源統理策略時,員工會有何不同績效表現?」的研究問題。根據資源基礎觀點中的持久性競爭優勢(sustained competitive advantage),本研究先提出「複雜性」與「獨特性」二種員工特性,並據之將員工區分為核心、獨特性、複雜性與可複製性四種人力資源(人力資源結構)後,再分別根據代理理論與交易成本理論提出「行為控制」與「內部培育」二種人力資源統理策略,並提出代表與人力資源結構相對應之人力資源統理策略的人力資源管理結構。由於組織與員工間存在著一種互惠性交換關係,所以本研究接著利用代表員工對於其與組織間互惠性交換關係成分與狀態主觀看法的心理契約(psychological contract)來作為連結人力資源統理機制與員工績效的中介機制(心理契約結構),提出代表人力資源統理機制與員工績效間關係的績效結構。
根據172組(主管卷172份,員工卷806份)來自台灣上市公司的資料,本研究分別利用t檢定與階層線性模式(Hierarchical Linear Modeling)對人力資源管理結構與心理契約結構及績效結構進行檢驗。根據分析結果,本研究推論組織確實會對不同型態人力資源採用不同的人力資源統理策略,而不同的統理策略亦將引發出員工不同的績效表現。首先,對於高「複雜性」與高「獨特性」的核心人力資源,組織將會採用高「內部培育」與低「行為控制」的統理策略,而此統理策略除將形塑出該類型員工長期「持續期間」的心理契約特質外,亦將促進他(她)的「角色內行為」、「OCBI」與「OCBO」;反之,對於低「複雜性」與低「獨特性」的可複製性人力資源,組織將會採用低「內部培育」與高「行為控制」的統理策略,進而形塑出該類型員工特定「績效與酬賞關係」的心理契約特質與其「角色內行為」;其次,對於低「複雜性」與高「獨特性」的獨特性人力資源,組織將會採用高「內部培育」與高「行為控制」的統理策略,而此統理策略則將同時形塑出該類型員工長期「持續期間」與特定「績效與酬賞關係」的心理契約特質,並進而促進其「角色內行為」與「OCBO」;最後,針對高「複雜性」與低「獨特性」的複雜性人力資源,雖然根據理論可知組織會對其採用低「內部培育」與低「行為控制」的統理策略,但由於本研究認為組織的不做為將無法有效的形塑員工的心理契約特質與績效行為,所以該統理策略將無法形塑或促進複雜性人力資源的心理契約特質與績效行為。但由於複雜性人力資源對組織的持久性競爭優勢仍有其貢獻,因此組織將採取何種作為來形塑與促進其認知與績效行為,便是後續研究在探討組織人力資源管理措施與員工績效間關係時可能的取向之一。
Abstract
The aim of this study is to discuss the query: “When organizations apply different human resource (HR) systems in managing their employees with different characteristics, what will be the employees’ possible performance patterns?” by modifying and extending Lepak & Snell’s (1999) HR architecture. According to employees’ contribution to the sustained competitive advantages (SCAs), we first identified two main characteristics of employees: complexity and uniqueness. The employees could be further categorized into core, unique, complex, and imitable HR and the HR architecture is thereby constructed. Furthermore, based on agency theory and transactional cost theory, we propose behavioral control and internal development as the two main strategies for managing employees with different characteristics: integration with HR architecture, and construction of human resource management (HRM) architecture. Finally, there are exchange relationships between employees and their organizations. Since psychological contracts reflect employees’ beliefs in the terms and conditions of a reciprocal exchange relationship between them and their employers (Rousseau, 1995), they are viewed as the best linking mechanism between HR systems and employee behaviors (Wright & Boswell, 2002). Accordingly, we adopted psychological contract perspective to discuss the relationships between HR systems and employees’ role behaviors and sequentially proposed the corresponding psychological contract architecture as well as the performance architecture.
Multilevel analysis and t-test of data from 172 Taiwanese datasets (172 copies from immediate managers and 806 from employees) revealed that different HR systems not only are applied to manage different types of employees but also elicit different patterns of employees’ performance. First, organizations would like to apply higher levels of internal development and lower levels of behavioral control in managing their core HR. These strategies caused employees to believe that they had a long-term exchange relationship with the organizations and simultaneously improve their in-role behaviors, OCBI, and OCBO. In contrast, organizations would like to apply lower levels of internal development and higher levels of behavioral control in managing their imitable HR. This governance made employees focus on specific performance-reward contingencies in their exchange relationships with the organizations, as well as to enhance their in-role behaviors. Next, organizations would like to apply higher levels of internal development and behavioral control in managing their unique HR. These strategies caused employees to believe that they had a long-term exchange relationship with the organizations, with an emphasis on specific performance-reward contingencies. For this reason, this HR system could prompt employees’ appropriate in-role behaviors and OCBO. Finally, according to the HRM architecture, an organization should theoretically apply a lower level of internal development and behavioral control in managing its complex HR. Since it is not possible to form employees’ psychological contract or create relevant role behaviors when organizations do not actively adopt specific strategies to manage them, we did not empirically examine the relationships between HR systems and employees’ complex role behaviors. However, complex HR still contributes to the SCAs. Accordingly, future research could focus on complex HR and explore which types of HR system would be beneficial in regard to their role behaviors.
目次 Table of Contents
第一章 緒論..........1
第一節 研究背景..........1
第二節 研究目的..........2

第二章 文獻探討..........5
第一節 人力資源管理系統..........5
第二節 心理契約結構........20
第三節 員工績效結構........26

第三章 研究設計........36
第一節 樣本與資料蒐集........37
第二節 測量工具........40

第四章 研究結果........54
第一節 人力資源管理結構........54
第二節 心理契約結構........57
第三節 員工績效結構........62

第五章 結論與建議........67
第一節 結論........67
第二節 管理意涵........69
第三節 研究限制與後續研究建議........71

參考文獻........73

附錄一:各量表原始模式中各題項之標準化參數估計(SS)與T值(T)........83

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