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姓名 林永申(Yung-Shen Lin) 電子郵件信箱 E-mail 資料不公開
畢業系所 電機工程學系研究所(Institute of Electrical Engineering)
畢業學位 博士(Ph.D.) 畢業時期 101學年第2學期
論文名稱(中) 植基於文字分類與分群的文本相似度量測
論文名稱(英) Measuring Document Similarity Based on Text Classification and Clustering
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    摘要(中) 本論文提出一新的文本相似度量測演算法,並藉由應用於多個文本資料庫,來驗證所提方法之可行性。其次,探討近似複本文件的相似度量測,進而提出新的偵測方法。文本資料要進行處理時,通常擷取足以涵蓋文本內容的資訊當作特徵值,再比對各個特徵的相似程度,並以此做為量測相似度的依據。因此,考量兩份文本之間的相似度,可以經由判斷所擷取的特徵在兩份文本中有無出現的情況、各個特徵相似的程度,以及相似特徵的數量多寡等等因素,進而提出最佳的量測方法。在本論文中,我們提出一個以文字分類及分群技術為基礎的相似度量測法,同時設計出一個有效且可行的近似複本文本偵測法。
        文本處理為目前資訊檢索、資料探勘及網路搜尋引擎等應用上很重要的技術。文本資料進行分析處理時,通常採用足以代表文本的特徵值來進行運算。這些特徵可以是單一字母、單字、整句乃至整段文字,而目前最常被使用的即是袋字模型(bag-of-words model),此模型以文本中各個特徵出現的頻率,建立一代表文本的向量,再以此向量分析文本資料。代表文本的特徵向量,其中的向量值可以是被選為特徵項在文本中出現的次數、特徵項出現次數與全部特徵項出現次數總和的比例或是特徵項在單一文本出現頻率與同時在全部文本出現頻率的組合比。本論文針對任一特徵項出現在兩份比對文本的情況,區分為特徵項同時出現在比對的兩份文本中、特徵項僅出現在其中一份文本,以及兩份文本均無此特徵項等三種情況進行探討,並提出一新的相似度量測方式。此量測是以一對稱的量測方式,可以具體就前述三種情況建立特徵向量進行比對,進而得到兩份文本的相似程度值。此方法並實際應用於單標籤分類、多標籤分類、k-means 相似分群及聚合式階層分群等多個文本資料的應用,演算結果證明新發表的方法確實可行。
        在本論文中亦以前述之文本相似度量測方法為基礎,設計出一偵測近似複本文本的演算法。現今電子文本氾濫的網路時代,任一文本可以經由臉書(Facebook)、部落格(Blog) 及電子郵件等等媒介的增加、刪改或轉發等方式而形成許多近似複本文件,而搜尋引擎根據使用者所下達的搜尋項檢索資料,傳送出檢索的結果。因為是以搜尋項為特徵項進行檢索,因此,所得結果必然包含許多重複或近似的文本,若能以有效的方法判別出這些近似複本文,必然可以降低檢索結果中的重複文本,連帶提升搜尋效能,所以,如何有效偵測出近似複本文件已是時下一大課題。本論文提出能從大量資料中有效偵測出近似複本文件的方法。本方法有別於現已發表的文章大多以選擇字詞為特徵項,而是以句子作為文本的特徵項。採用句子為特徵擷取單位的方法比起以字詞特徵作為擷取單位的方法,更能有效表現出文本的特色。而進行相似度量測以及推導適用的判別分類器時,在傳統的方法是以門檻值作為判別文本關係的分水嶺,再以試誤法找出最佳門檻值,耗時且成效不佳。我們的方法則是改採支持向量機來訓練建立分類器,由於依照使用者所定義的訓練樣本來訓練分類器,可以使結果更具有可信度,因此,本論文依此架構出一有效的方法,最後並以實驗驗證。從實驗過程中得知,我們所提出的方法確實更有效率。
    摘要(英) This thesis proposes a novel similarity measure that applies between documents. The proposed measure is also extended to gauge the similarity between two sets of documents. Furthermore, a new method of similarity measure implementation is assigned to detect near-duplicate documents.
      To measure the similarity between two documents is a significant utilization in the text field. Computing the similarity between two documents with respect to a feature, the appropriate features are selected to represent documents, and employed to measure the similarity. Therefore, a similarity measure between two documents may be interested about the feature appears in both documents or not, similarity degree
    between features, and the number of similar features. In this thesis, we propose a new similarity based on three cases of the feature appear conditions.
      Document’s similarity differentiating is a significant operation in the text processing. For items of documents are huge, selecting the appropriate
    features to represent documents and facilitate this target are important. The documentation analysis usually retrieves the information sufficient to cover contents of the documents as a representative of
    documents feature. These features may be a single letter, word, sentence, or even whole paragraph. And the vector-space model is used to represent the features. To compute the similarity between two documents with respect to a feature, the major measure takes the following three cases into account: a) The feature appears in both documents, b) the feature appears in only one document, and c) the feature appears in none of the documents. Based on the research and to improve the performance of the similarity measure algorithms, our proposed measure
    is extended to gauge the similarity between two sets of documents. The effectiveness of our measure is evaluated on several real-world data sets for text classification and clustering problems, and the results are better than that achieved by other measures.
      For more consider of similarity measure, an implementation of detecting near-duplicate documents is also demonstrated. Based on similarity measure, we present a novel method for detecting near-duplicates from a large collection of documents.
      To distinguish near-duplicate documents is extremely important in the Internet era. If a search engine can effectively determine the near-duplicate
    documents will have access to reduce the number of duplicate documents retrieved, jointly and severally improve the search performance. For this purpose, we also propose a novel method for detecting
    near-duplicates from a huge collection of documents. Three major parts are involved in our method, feature selection, similarity measure, and discriminant derivation. To find near-duplicates to an input document, each sentence of the input document is fetched and preprocessed, the weight of each term is calculated, and the heavily weighted terms are selected to be the feature of the sentence. As a result, the input document is turned into a set of such features. A similarity measure is afterwards
    applied and the similarity degree between the input document, and each document in the given collection is computed. A support vector machine (SVM) is adopted to learn a discriminant function from a training pattern set, which is then employed to determine whether a document is a near-duplicate to the input document based on the similarity degree between them. The sentence-level features we adopt can better reveal the characteristics of a document. Besides, learning the discriminant function by SVM can avoid trial-and-error efforts required in conventional
    methods. Experimental results show that our method is effective in near-duplicate document detection.
    關鍵字(中)
  • 近似複本文件
  • 特徵擷取
  • 分類器
  • 分群演算法
  • 文件分類
  • 文件分群
  • 準確度
  • 相似度函數
  • 關鍵字(英)
  • similarity function
  • feature selection
  • entropy
  • document clustering
  • document classification
  • near-duplicate document
  • accuracy
  • classifiers
  • clustering algorithms
  • 論文目次 書名頁. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i
    致謝辭. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii
    論文口試委員審定書. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii
    授權書. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v
    中文摘要. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii
    Abstract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix
    Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xii
    List of Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv
    List of Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii
    1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
    1.1 Text Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
    1.2 Similarity Measure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
    1.3 Detecting Near-Duplicates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
    1.4 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
    2 Similarity Measure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
    2.1 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
    2.2 Related Works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
    2.2.1 Distance Measure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
    2.2.2 Clustering Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
    2.2.2.1 K-Means Clustering Algorithm . . . . . 14
    2.2.2.2 HAC Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
    2.2.3 Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
    2.2.3.1 K-NN Single-Label Document Classification
    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
    2.2.3.2 Multi-Label Document Classification . . 20
    3 Detecting Near-Duplicate Documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
    3.1 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
    3.2 Related Works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
    3.2.1 Document Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
    3.2.2 Similarity Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
    4 A Novel Similarity Measure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
    4.1 Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
    4.2 Similarity Between Two Documents . . . . . . . . . . . 32
    4.3 Similarity Between Two Document Sets . . . . . . . . . 38
    5 A Novel of Detecting Near-Duplicate Documents . . . . . . . 46
    5.1 Feature Sets Based on Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
    5.2 Preparing Training Patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
    5.3 Discriminant Derivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
    5.4 Testing Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
    5.5 System Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
    5.6 Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
    6 Experimental Results for SMTP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
    6.1 Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
    6.2 Data Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
    6.3 Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
    6.3.1 Single-Label Document Classification . . . . . . 64
    6.3.2 Multi-Label Document Classification . . . . . . . 70
    6.4 Clustering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
    6.4.1 K-Means Based Document Clustering . . . . . . 74
    6.4.2 Hierarchical Agglomerative Document Clustering 78
    7 Experimental Results for Detecting Near-Duplicate Documents 84
    7.1 Data Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
    7.2 Experiment I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
    7.3 Experiment II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
    7.4 Experiment III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
    7.5 Experiment IV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
    7.6 Experiment V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
    7.7 Experiment VI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
    8 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
    Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
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    口試委員
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  • 蔡賢亮 - 委員
  • 李錫智 - 指導教授
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