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Exploring the Relationships among Career Needs, Commitments, and Health for Survivors in Downsizing -Using Career Adaptability as a Moderator
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李英俊, 林妍如, 林豪傑
Ying-Chun Li; Blossom Yen-Ju Lin; Hao-Chieh Lin
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professional commitment, downsizing, career needs, career commitment, career adaptability
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台灣近15 年來人口趨勢不斷的下滑，少子化衝擊高教體系運作；特別在部份南部與東部私立技職院校，已面臨招生不足導致營運困難，此情況下，招生不足學校以精簡策略作為因應，精簡決策衝擊組織也同時影響個人承諾與健康，當中組織的留任者，對組織運作與組織成功有直接影響。因此，本文以組織精簡的留任者為研究對象，探討組織精簡，留任者的職涯需求，對職涯承諾、專業承諾、與健康之間的關係，並以Isabella (1989)提出的職涯需求評估模式，包含績效需求、進階需求、與成長及安全需求，探討對職涯需求與職涯承諾、專業承諾、與健康的關係。此外，職涯適應性可作為調節變數，可觀察對上述的關係是否有調節效果。在選擇17 個樣本學校的留任老師為對象，共發出560 份問卷，回收351份問卷，回收率62.63%。以AMOS 18.0 與SPSS 18.0 為統計工具作效度檢測與階層迴歸分析。本文研究發現職涯需求對於職涯承諾、專業承諾、與健康三者間有顯著正向關係，其中職涯需求與專業承諾，有最高正相關。在個別職涯需求之績效需求與專業承諾有最高的顯著正相關。此外，探討職涯適應性對職涯需求與專業承諾、健康之間關係之調節效果;職涯適應性對於職涯需求與專業承諾、健康之間關係，有顯著正相關的調節效果。職涯適應性對個別職涯需求之三大類需求與健康有顯著正向調節效果；其中，留任者的職涯適應性對於績效需求與健康之間調節效果最為顯著。這些研究發現可填補過去較少量化結果的缺口與研究較少辨識職涯需求與留任者的承諾與健康之間的關係，而個人適應性對這些關係的調節效果是本文的發現。
In the last 15 years, Taiwanese newborn population had demonstrated a decreasing trend, which brought a major impact on the higher education system. Inefficient operation emerged in private-sector schools that some schools in southern and eastern Taiwan cannot recruit sufficient students from the current shrinking market. Some private schools adopted downsizing as a measurement. In a downsizing, survivors were still directly to organizational success and their perceptions. The research aimed surviving teachers to explore the relationships between career needs and career commitment (CC), professional commitment (PC), and health. Also, the relationships between three categories of career needs and performance-related needs, advancement-related needs, and growth- security-related needs were included. In addition, career adaptability (CA) characterized as personal traits of different levels of adjustment for environment change as a moderator was to observe if CA has moderate effects on the relationships. A survey method was designed questionnaire for higher educational schools undertaken a downsizing and surviving teachers as the objects. From the selected 17 schools, the research distributed 560 questionnaires and returned 351 responding questionnaires which had a return rate of 62.63%. Collected questionnaires were enacted by Hierarchical Regression Analysis (HRA) as instruments with SPSS 18.0 and AMOS 18.0 to process the data. The results found career needs have the significant relationships with CC, PC, and health. Of these relationships, career needs had the most significantly correlation with PC. In first-order, the main relationship was found performance-related needs had the highest correlation with PC. In addition, CA had the moderate effects on the relationships between career needs and PC and health. The highest relationships between three subscale categories of career needs of performance-related needs and health had a positive effect by CA moderator. The findings were different from past qualitative research and filled a gap of past research lack of identifying the main relationships between career needs and commitments, and using CA as a moderator has the effects on the main relationships are the research findings.
目次 Table of Contents
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Background 1
1.2 Purpose of the Study 6
1.3 Research Questions 7
1.4 The Significance of the Study n 7
Chapter 2 Literature Review 10
2.1 Downsizing 10
2.2 The Survivors’ Roles 11
2.3 Needs 14
2.3.1 The Definition of Need 14
2.4 Career Needs 16
2.4.1 The Career in Downsizing 17
2.4.2 Career Need Categories 18
2.4.3 The Relationship between Career Needs and Perceptions 20
2.4.4 The relationship between Career Needs and Commitments and Health 23
2.4.5 The Importance of Career needs for survivors 25
2.5 Survivors’ Perceptions 27
2.6 The Commitments 28
2.6.1 Career Commitment 31
220.127.116.11 The Definition of Career Commitment 31
18.104.22.168 The Dimensions between Career Needs and Career Commitment 33
22.214.171.124 The Relationship between Career Needs and Career Commitment 34
2.6.2 Professional Commitment 37
126.96.36.199 The Definition of Professional Commitment 37
188.8.131.52 The Importance of Professional Commitment 38
2.6.3 The Components of Professional Commitment 39
2.6.4 The Relationship between Career Needs and Professional Commitment 40
2.7 Health 41
2.7.1 The Relationship between downsizing and health 41
2.7.2 Survivor mental illness 41
2.7.3 Survivor physical illness 42
2.7.4 The Relationship between Career Needs and Health 44
2.8 Career Adaptability 45
2.8.1 The Moderate Effects of Career Adaptability 47
2.9 The Conceptual Framework of this research 49
Chapter 3 Research Methodology 48
3.1 Sample, Data Collection Procedure, and Sample Selection Methodology 51
3.1.1 Samples 51
3.1.2 Produces 52
3.1.3 Data Collection Procedures 53
3.2 Measurement 54
3.2.1 The Operational Definition of the Control Variables and Constructs 54
3.2.2 Questionnaire Design 55
3.3 The Analysis of Reliability and Validity 63
3.3.1 Validation Analysis 63
3.3.2 Reliability Analysis 64
3.4 The Analysis Methods 81
(1) Descriptive Analysis 81
(2) t-test, the Bivariate Analysis and Hierarchical Regression Model Analysis 81
Chapter 4 the Analysis and Results of the Research 83
4.1 Descriptive statistical results 83
4.2 t-test One-way ANOVA analysis 87
4.3 The Correlation Matrix 97
4.4 Hierarchical Regression Analysis on Second-order Test 99
4.4.1 The Relationship between Career Needs and Career Commitment 99
4.4.2 The Relationship between Career Needs and Professional Commitment 102
4.4.3 The Relationship between Career Needs and Health 106
4.5 First-order Relationship between Career Needs and Commitments and Health 110
4.5.1 The Relationship between Performance-related Needs and Career Commitment 110
4.5.2 The Relationship between Advancement-related Needs and Career Commitment 111
4.5.3 The Relationship between Growth- and Securityrelated Needs and Career Commitment 114
4.5.4 The Relationship between Performance-related Needs and Professional Commitment 117
4.5.5 The Relationship between Advancement-related Needs and Professional Commitment 119
4.5.6 The Relationship between Growth- and Securityrelated Needs and Professional Commitment 122
4.5.7 The Relationship between Performance-related Needs and Health 125
4.5.8 The Relationship between Advancement-related Needs and Health 128
4.5.9 The Relationship between Growth- and Securityrelated Needs and Health 131
4.6 Summary of the Test 134
4.7 The Moderate Effects of Career adaptability 137
Chapter 5 Discussion 149
5.1 The Relationship Career Needs and Professional Commitment, Career Commitment, and Health and the Moderate Effects of Career Adaptability 149
Chapter 6 Conclusion, Limitation, and Managerial Application 161
6.1 Conclusion 161
6.2. Limitations 164
6.3 Managerial Application 167
Appendix I- The Questionnaire 193
Appendix II- The Approval Letters 207
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