Responsive image
博碩士論文 etd-0517116-094040 詳細資訊
Title page for etd-0517116-094040
外派人員的家庭因素與跨文化適應對工作績效之影響- 以台灣人外派中國大陸為例
The effect of family factors and cross-cultural adjustment on Taiwanese expatriate's job performance in Mainland China
Year, semester
Number of pages
Yu-Ping Wang
Advisory Committee
Ming-Chu Yu
Date of Exam
Date of Submission
family factors, expatriate, job performance, cross-cultural adjustment
本論文已被瀏覽 5731 次,被下載 0
The thesis/dissertation has been browsed 5731 times, has been downloaded 0 times.

這份研究的主要目標是探討家庭因素和跨文化適應是否對於外派人員在工作績效上造成影響,透過量化研究方法,以迴歸分析數據結果。研究發現如下:1. 外派人家庭因素(家庭支持度、適應度、溝通度)對其工作績效具有正向影響,但其中外派人員家庭適應度對其工作出席無直接影響。 2. 外派人員跨文化適應力(一般、工作、互動適應力)對其工作績效具有正向影響。

Since the rapid trend of Globalization, enterprise have already expanded the subsidiaries in oversea market. For Taiwanese cooperation, there are many investing in Mainland China which means there is a need for Taiwanese cooperation to assign the expatriate to maintain the business in China. Thus, it’s very important for the company to comprehend the factors which influence on the success of expatriation.

The objective of this research is to find out the whether family factors and cross-cultural adjustment influence on Taiwanese expatriate’s job performance in Mainland China. Through the quantitative method, the data is analyzed by regression to find the results. And the data reveals findings are as followings: 1. Expatriate’s family factors (family support, adaptability, communication) has the positive influence on job performance. However, there’s no significant correlation between family adaptability and work attendance. 2. Expatriate’s cross-cultural adjustment (general, work, interaction adjustment) has the positive influence on job performance.

The research targets on helping the cooperation to improve the expatriate’s job performance.Through figuring out the relationship between family factors and job performance, cross-cultural adjustment and job performance, the research also provides the suggestion to reduce the failure of expatriation and lower down the loss.
目次 Table of Contents
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Research Background 1
1.2 Research Motivation 4
1.3 Problem Statement 5
1.4 Key Terminologies 5
Chapter 2 Literature Review 7
2.1 Family Factors 7
2.2 Spillover Theory and Family Factors 9
2.3 Cross-Cultural Adjustment 9
2.4 Expatriate’s Cross-Cultural Adjustment and Job Performance 10
2.5 Importance of Expatriate’s Support to Cross-Cultural Adjustment and Job Performance 11
2.5 The Function of Employee’s Job Performance 13
2.6 The Measurement of Job Performance 15
Chapter 3 Methodology 20
3.1 Research Structure 20
3.2 Research Hypothesis 21
3.3 Research Object 22
3.4 Research Design and Instrument 23
3.5 Quantitative Data Analysis 24
Chapter 4 Analysis and Results 31
4.1 Demographic Characteristics of Respondents 31
4.2 The relationship between expatriate’s family support and job performance 41
4.2.1 Regression of family support on work effectiveness 41
4.2.2 Regression of family support on work attendance 43
4.2.3 Regression of family support on job engagement 45
4.3 The relationship between expatriate’s family adaptability and job performance 47
4.3.1 Regression of family adaptability on work effectiveness 47
4.3.2 Regression of family adaptability on work attendance 49
4.3.3 Regression of family adaptability on job engagement 51
4.4 The relationship between expatriate’s family communication and job performance 53
4.4.1 Regression of family communication on work effectiveness 54
4.4.2 Regression of family communication on work attendance 55
4.4.3 Regression of family communication on job engagement 57
4.5 The relationship between expatriate’s general adjustment and job performance 59
4.5.1 Regression of general adjustment on work effectiveness 59
4.5.2 Regression of general adjustment on work attendance 61
4.5.3 Regression of general adjustment on job engagement 63
4.6 The relationship between expatriate’s work adjustment and job performance 64
4.6.1 Regression of work adjustment on work effectiveness 65
4.6.2 Regression of work adjustment on work attendance 66
4.6.3 Regression of work adjustment on job engagement 68
4.7 The relationship between expatriate’s interaction adjustment and job performance 70
4.7.1 Regression of interaction adjustment on work effectiveness 70
4.7.2 Regression of interaction adjustment on work attendance 72
4.7.3 Regression of interaction adjustment on job engagement 73
4.8 The Results of Hypothesis Test 75
Chapter 5 Conclusion and Recommendation 77
5.1 Conclusion 77
5.1.1 The effect of expatriate’s family support to job performance 77
5.1.2 The effect of expatriate’s family adaptability to job performance 77
5.1.3 The effect of expatriate’s family communication to job performance 78
5.1.4 The effect of expatriate’s general adjustment to job performance 78
5.1.5 The effect of expatriate’s work adjustment to job performance 79
5.1.6 The effect of expatriate’s interaction adjustment to job performance 79
5.2 Research Limitations and Recommendations for Future Research 79
References 81
Appendix 1 Questionnaire 88
Appendix 2 Questionnaire in Chinese 92
參考文獻 References
Adler, S. and Weiss, H. (1984) ‘Personality and organizational behavior’, Research in organizational behavior, 6, pp. 711–718.
Ahr, P.R. (1976) ‘SUPPORT SYSTEMS AND MUTUAL HELP: MULTIDISCIPLINARY EXPLORATIONS —edited by Gerald Caplan, M.D., and Marie Killilea; Grune & Stratton, New York city, 1976, 325 pages, $19.50’, Psychiatric Services, 28(6), pp. 465–465. doi: 10.1176/ps.28.6.465.
Aryee, S. and Stone, R.J. (1996) ‘Work experiences, work adjustment and psychological well-being of expatriate employees in Hong Kong’, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 7(1), pp. 150–164. doi: 10.1080/09585199600000122.
Aycan, Z. (1997) ‘Expatriate adjustment as a multifaceted phenomenon: Individual and organizational level predictors’, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 8(4), pp. 434–456. doi: 10.1080/095851997341540.
Baliga, G. and Baker, J.C. (1985) ‘Multinational corporate policies for Expatriate manager selection, training and evaluation’, Advanced Management Journal, , pp. 31–38.
Barnett, R., Marshall, N.L. and Sayer, A. (1992) ‘Positive-spillover effects from job to home: A closer look’, Women & Health, 19(2-3), pp. 13–41. doi: 10.1300/j013v19n02_02.
Bauer, T.N. and Green, S.G. (1998) ‘Testing the combined effects of newcomer information seeking and manager behavior on socialization’, Journal of Applied Psychology, 83(1), pp. 72–83. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.83.1.72.
Berger, C.J. and Cummings, L.L. (1979) ‘Organizational structure, attitudes, and behaviors’, Research in Organizational Behavior, 1, pp. 169–208.
Bhatti, M.A. (2012) ‘Expatriate job performance and adjustment: Role of individual and organizational factors’, Journal of Business & Management, 1(1), pp. 29–39. doi: 10.12735/jbm.v1i1p29.
Björkman, I. and Schapp, A. (1994) ‘Outsiders in the middle kingdom: Expatriate managers in Chinese-Western joint ventures’, European Management Journal, 12(2), pp. 147–153. doi: 10.1016/0263-2373(94)90005-1.
Black, J.S. (1988) ‘Work role transitions: A study of American expatriate managers in Japan’, Journal of International Business Studies, 19(2), pp. 277–294. doi: 10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490383.
Black, J.S. and Gregersen, H.B. (1991) ‘When Yankee comes home: Factors related to expatriate and spouse repatriation adjustment’, Journal of International Business Studies, 22(4), pp. 671–694. doi: 10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490319.
Black, J.S. and Gregersen, H.B. (1999) ‘The right way to manage expats’, Harvard Business Review, , pp. 52–55.
Black, J.S. and Mendenhall, M. (1991) ‘The u-curve adjustment hypothesis revisited: A review and theoretical framework’, Journal of International Business Studies, 22(2), pp. 225–247. doi: 10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490301.
Black, J.S., Mendenhall, M. and Oddou, G. (1991) ‘Toward a comprehensive model of international adjustment: An integration of multiple theoretical perspectives’, The Academy of Management Review, 16(2), p. 291. doi: 10.2307/258863.
Black, J.S. and Stevens, G.K. (1989) ‘The influence of the spouse on expatriate adjustment and intent to stay in overseas assignments’, Academy of Management Proceedings, 1989(1), pp. 101–105. doi: 10.5465/ambpp.1989.4977988.
Borman, W.C. and Motowidlo, S.J. (1993) ‘Task Performance and Contextual Performance: the meaning for personnel selection research’, Humsn Performance, 10(2), pp. 99–109.
Brett, J.M. (1980) ‘Why employees want unions’, Organizational Dynamics, 8(4), pp. 47–59. doi: 10.1016/0090-2616(80)90048-0.
Caligiuri, P.M. (1997) ‘Assessing expatriate success: Beyond just “being there"’, New approaches to employee management, 4, pp. 117–140.
Caligiuri, P.M. and Day, D.V. (2000) ‘Effects of self-monitoring on technical, Contextual, and assignment-specific performance: A study of cross-national work performance ratings’, Group & Organization Management, 25(2), pp. 154–175. doi: 10.1177/1059601100252004.
Campbell, J.P. (1990) Modeling the performance prediction problem in industrial and organizational psychology. (2 Vols). Consulting Psychologists Press.
Campbell, J.P., McCloy, R.A., Oppler, S.H. and Sager, C.E. (1993) A Theory of Performance. Edited by N Schmitt and W. C Borman. New York: Jossey-Bass.
Caplan, R.D., Cobb, S. and French, J.R. (1975) ‘Relationships of cessation of smoking with job stress, personality, and social support’, Journal of Applied Psychology, 60(2), pp. 211–219. doi: 10.1037/h0076471.
Copeland, L. and Griggs, I. (1985) ‘Going international’, New York:Random House Press, .
Dixon, J.R., Nanni, A.J. and Vollmann, T.E. (eds.) (1990) The New Performance Challenge – Measuring Operations for World-Class Competition. Dow Jones-Irwin, Homewood, IL.
Dobbins, G.H., Cardy, R.L. and Carson, K.P. (1991) ‘Examining fundamental assumption: A contrast of person and system approaches to human resource management’, Research in Personnel and Human Resource Management, 3, pp. 1–38.
Fisher, C.D. (1985) ‘Social support and adjustment to work: A longitudinal study’, Journal of Management, 11(3), pp. 39–53. doi: 10.1177/014920638501100304.
Fletcher, B.(c. ) and Payne, R.L. (1980) ‘Stress and work: A review and theoretical framework, I’, Personnel Review, 9(1), pp. 19–29. doi: 10.1108/eb055400.
Forster, N. (1997) ‘“The persistent myth of high expatriate failure rates”: A reappraisal’, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 8(4), pp. 414–433. doi: 10.1080/095851997341531.
Ganster, D.C., Fusilier, M.R. and Mayes, B.T. (1986) ‘Role of social support in the experience of stress at work’, Journal of Applied Psychology, 71(1), pp. 102–110. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.71.1.102.
Gerstner, C.R. and Day, D.V. (1997) ‘Meta-Analytic review of leader-member exchange theory: Correlates and construct issues’, Journal of Applied Psychology, 82(6), pp. 827–844. doi: 10.1037//0021-9010.82.6.827.
Gómez-Mejía, L.R., Balkin, D.B., Cardy, R.L., Gomez-Mejia, L. and David Balkin and Robert Cardy Luis Gomez-Mejia (2003) Managing human resources. 3rd edn. Dehli: Pearson Education.
Harvey, M.G. and Buckley, M.R. (1998) ‘The process for developing an international program for dual-career couples’, Human Resource Management Review, 8(1), pp. 99–123. doi: 10.1016/s1053-4822(99)80041-2.
Hechanova, R., Beehr, T.A. and Christiansen, N.D. (2003) ‘Antecedents and consequences of employees’ adjustment to overseas assignment: A Meta-analytic review’, Applied Psychology, 52(2), pp. 213–236. doi: 10.1111/1464-0597.00132.
Hodgetts, R.M. and Luthans, F. (1993) ‘U.S. Multinationals’ compensation strategies for local management: Cross-cultural implications’, Compensation & Benefits Review, 25(2), pp. 42–48. doi: 10.1177/088636879302500207.
Holland, B.K. (1989) ‘Motivation and Job Satisfaction’, Journal of Property Management, 54(5), pp. 32–36.
Holopainen, J. and Björkman, I. (2005) ‘The personal characteristics of the successful expatriate’, Personnel Review, 34(1), pp. 37–50. doi: 10.1108/00483480510578476.
Kim, K. and Slocum, J.W. (2008) ‘Individual differences and expatriate assignment effectiveness: The case of U.S.-based Korean expatriates’, Journal of World Business, 43(1), pp. 109–126. doi: 10.1016/j.jwb.2007.10.005.
Korman, A. (1977) Organization Bahavior. Prentice Hall. Inc. Englewood Cliffs.
Laabs, J.J. (1993) ‘Employees manage conflict and diversity’, Personnel Journal, 72(12), pp. 30–34.
Lambert, S.J. (1990) ‘Processes linking work and family: A critical review and research agenda’, Human Relations, 43(3), pp. 239–257. doi: 10.1177/001872679004300303.
Liden, R.C., Wayne, S.J. and Stilwell, D. (1993) ‘A longitudinal study on the early development of leader^member exchanges’, Journal of Applied Psychology, 78(4), pp. 662–674. doi: 10.1037//0021-9010.78.4.662.
Lodahl, T.M. and Kejnar, M. (1965) ‘The definition and measurement of job involvement’, Journal of Applied Psychology, 49(1), pp. 24–33. doi: 10.1037/h0021692.
Lu, L., Cooper, C.L., Chen, Y.C., Hsu, C.H., Li, C.H., Wu, H.L. and Shih, J.B. (1995) ‘Chinese version of the OSI: A study of reliability and factor structures’, Stress Medicine, 11(1), pp. 149–155. doi: 10.1002/smi.2460110125.
Major, D.A., Kozlowski, S.W.J., Chao, G.T. and Gardner, P.D. (1995) ‘A longitudinal investigation of newcomer expectations, early socialization outcomes, and the moderating effects of role development factors’, Journal of Applied Psychology, 80(3), pp. 418–431. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.80.3.418.
McClenahen, J.S. (1997) To go or not to go?How do you answer the call of a job abroad?, Industry Week, Jan , pp.33-36. .
Mendenhall, M. and Oddou, G. (1985) ‘The dimensions of expatriate acculturation: A review’, The Academy of Management Review, 10(1), p. 39. doi: 10.2307/258210.
Minuchin, S. (1974) Families and family therapy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Morley, M.J. and Flynn, M. (2003) ‘The relationship between work‐role characteristics and intercultural transitional adjustment domain patterns among a sample of US and Canadian expatriates on assignment in Ireland’, Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, 10(3), pp. 42–58. doi: 10.1108/13527600310797630.
Naumann, E. (1993) ‘Antecedents and consequences of satisfaction and commitment among expatriate managers’, Group & Organization Management, 18(2), pp. 153–187. doi: 10.1177/1059601193182003.
Olson, D.H., Russell, C.S. and Sprenkle, D.H. (1984) ‘Circumflex model of marital and family systems , Family Studies’, Family Studies Review Yearbook, 2, pp. 59–74.
Ones, D.S. and Viswesvaran, C. (2003) ‘Job-specific applicant pools and national norms for personality scales: Implications for range-restriction corrections in validation research’, Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(3), pp. 570–577. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.88.3.570.
Parker, B. and McEvoy, G.M. (1993) ‘Initial examination of a model of intercultural adjustment’, International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 17(3), pp. 355–379. doi: 10.1016/0147-1767(93)90039-b.
Paula, M., Califiuri, P.M., Hyland, Joshi, M.A. and Bross, A. (1998) ‘Testing a theoretical model for examining the relationship between family adjustment and expatriates’work adjustment’, Journal of Applied Psychological, 83(4), pp. 598–614.
Pfeffer, J. and Davis-Blake, A. (1986) ‘ADMINISTRATIVE SUCCESSION AND ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE: HOW ADMINISTRATOR EXPERIENCE MEDIATES THE SUCCESSION EFFECT’, Academy of Management Journal, 29(1), pp. 72–83. doi: 10.2307/255860.
Pires, G., Stanton, J. and Ostenfeld, S. (2006) ‘Improving expatriate adjustment and effectiveness in ethnically diverse countries: Marketing insights’, Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, 13(2), pp. 156–170. doi: 10.1108/13527600610662339.
Porter, L.W. and Lawler, E.E. (1965) ‘Properties of organization structure in relation to job attitudes and job behavior’, Psychological Bulletin, 64(1), pp. 23–51. doi: 10.1037/h0022166.
Pritchard, R.D., Campbell, K.M. and Campbell, D.J. (1977) ‘Effects of extrinsic financial rewards on intrinsic motivation’, Journal of Applied Psychology, 62(1), pp. 9–15. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.62.1.9.
Robbins, S.P. (1996) Organizational behaviour: Concepts, controversies, applications. 7th edn. United Kingdom: Prentice Hall.
Saleh, S.D. and Hosek, J. (1976) ‘Job involvement: Concepts and measurements’, Academy of Management Journal, 19(2), pp. 213–224. doi: 10.2307/255773.
Schermerhorn, J.R. (1989) Management for Productivity. 3rd edn. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Schneider, B., Brief, A.P. and Guzzo, R.A. (1996) ‘Creating a climate and culture for sustainable organizational change’, Organizational Dynamics, 24(4), pp. 7–19. doi: 10.1016/s0090-2616(96)90010-8.
Shaffer, M.A., Harrison, D.A. and Gilley, K.M. (1999) ‘Dimensions, determinants, and differences in the expatriate adjustment process’, Journal of International Business Studies, 30(3), pp. 557–581. doi: 10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490083.
Shaffer, M.A., Harrison, D.A., Gregersen, H., Black, J.S. and Ferzandi, L.A. (2006) ‘You can take it with you: Individual differences and expatriate effectiveness’, Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(1), pp. 109–125. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.91.1.109.
Shay, J.P. and Baack, S. (2006) ‘An empirical investigation of the relationships between modes and degree of expatriate adjustment and multiple measures of performance’, International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 6(3), pp. 275–294. doi: 10.1177/1470595806070634.
Sinangil, H.K. and Ones, D.S. (2003) ‘Gender differences in expatriate job performance’, Applied Psychology, 52(3), pp. 461–475. doi: 10.1111/1464-0597.00144.
Staines, G.L. (1980) ‘Spillover versus compensation: A review of the literature on the relationship between work and Nonwork’, Human Relations, 33(2), pp. 111–129. doi: 10.1177/001872678003300203.
Stroh, L.K. and Caligiuri, P.M. (1998) ‘Increasing global competitiveness through effective people management’, Journal of World Business, 33(1), pp. 1–16. doi: 10.1016/s1090-9516(98)80001-1.
Stroh, L.K., Dennis, L.E. and Cramer, T.C. (1994) ‘PREDICTORS OF EXPATRIATE ADJUSTMENT’, The International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 2(2), pp. 176–192. doi: 10.1108/eb028807.
Takeuchi, R., Yun, S. and Tesluk, P.E. (2002) ‘An examination of crossover and spillover effects of spousal and expatriate cross-cultural adjustment on expatriate outcomes’, Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(4), pp. 655–666. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.87.4.655.
Tung, R.L. (1981) ‘Selection and training procedures of U.S., European, and Japanese multinationals’, California Management Review, 25(1), pp. 57–71. doi: 10.2307/41164993.
Vroom, V.H. (1964) Work and motivation. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York: .
Zeira, Y. and Banai, M. (1987) ‘Selecting managers for foreign assignments’, Management Decision, 25(4), pp. 38–40. doi: 10.1108/eb001460.
電子全文 Fulltext
論文使用權限 Thesis access permission:自定論文開放時間 user define
開放時間 Available:
校內 Campus:開放下載的時間 available 2021-06-17
校外 Off-campus:永不公開 not available

您的 IP(校外) 位址是
論文開放下載的時間是 校外不公開

Your IP address is
This thesis will be available to you on Indicate off-campus access is not available.

QR Code