Responsive image
博碩士論文 etd-0523115-182121 詳細資訊
Title page for etd-0523115-182121
論文名稱
Title
中小企業於擴張期間之有效變革管理:改善指導方針
Effective Change Management during SME’s Expansion: The Guidelines for a Better Change
系所名稱
Department
畢業學年期
Year, semester
語文別
Language
學位類別
Degree
頁數
Number of pages
155
研究生
Author
指導教授
Advisor
召集委員
Convenor
口試委員
Advisory Committee
口試日期
Date of Exam
2015-05-27
繳交日期
Date of Submission
2015-06-24
關鍵字
Keywords
有效變革管理、方針、中小企業的擴張、變革管理、間斷平衡
guidelines, Effective change management, SME expansion, Punctuated equilibrium theory, Change Management
統計
Statistics
本論文已被瀏覽 5906 次,被下載 80
The thesis/dissertation has been browsed 5906 times, has been downloaded 80 times.
中文摘要
本論文為提供一個過去應變管理的理論,在中小企業中關於為了適應各種特別情況和特定目標進而去改變的概論,這個碩士論文的目的是說明經理需要做到甚麼以執行有效的變革管理,藉由雙方推動可接受的改變,或相反來說,防止或克服改變的阻力。儘管存在著眾多的改善模型,在這種情況下改變失敗得機率仍然相當的高。通過分析定性訪談的證詞,我們將嘗試在談論變革管理和員工含義理解這種故障的根源。最後,我們將會對以往的模型提出改善方法,為今後類似的管理改變做出建議。
Abstract
This paper offers a general overview of the past theories of change management applicable to organization of all kinds that we will adapt to a special case of change and a specific target: expansion in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). The aim of this Master thesis is to explain what the manager should accomplish in order to run an effective change management, by both motivating the change to generate its appropriation or, in opposition, preventing or overcoming the resistance to change.
Despite the existence of numerous change models, the change failure rate in these cases is still dramatically extreme. By analyzing testimonies from qualitative interviews, we will try to understand the source of this failure when talking about change management and employee implication. Finally, we will come up with suggestions in accordance with the previous change models for future similar managerial changes.
目次 Table of Contents
Thesis Verification Letter i
Aknowledgement ii
摘錄 iii
English Abstract iv
Table of Contents v
List of figures vii
Introduction 1
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK 4
 PART 1: EXPANSION IN SMEs 5
 Small And Medium Enterprise 5
 Legal definition 5
 Importance of the target: Why we should not neglect the SMEs?  7
 Quantitative aspect 7
 Qualitative aspect 8
 Why SMEs need Expansion? 11
 What are the possible expansions a SME can experience? 11
 Need of expansion 12
 Greiner model 15
 The punctuated equilibrium theory:  21
PART 2: CHANGE MANAGEMENT 24
 Definition  24
 Understanding the nature of organizational change  27
 Content research  28
 Contextual research 30
 Process issues   31
 Variable–criterion and results 33
 Effective change management  35
 Definition of the concept  35
 The human aspect of an organization: Outcomes of change  37
 Appropriation  37
 Resistance  38
 Tools  40
PART 3: EXPLORATORY INVESTIGATIONS 45
 Interview guide: 45
 Analyze of the exploratory investigations:  46
EMPERICAL FRAMEWORK 48
PART 1: PRESENTATION OF THE QUALITATIVE STUDY 49
 A qualitative approach 49
 The target:  50
 Interviewee’s companies presentation 50
 Collection and treatment of data: 50
 Matrix for data treatment 51
PART 2: THE CHANGE MANAGEMENT 52
 The main expansion needs for SMEs  52
 Develop and offer a new good or a new service  52
 Create a sustainable economic model 52
 Maximize the creation of value 54
 By reaching a higher economic activity 54
 By reaching a better measure of profitability 54
 By bringing added value to the already established structure 55
 Expansion transformation and change management 56
 Focus on the project: the manager in quality of project leader 56
 The transformation: Spontaneity or decision-­‐making? 56
 Project Management: definition of goals and roles 57
 Project Management competences 57
 Focus on the human dimension of change: the manager in quality of change leader 59
 A participative management 59
 Family business management: an exception to the rule 60
 Communication 61
 Change management 62
 General observations 63

PART 3: A BETTER CHANGE 65
 The pillars of a good change for SMEs 65
 The strategy 66
 Competencies 66
 Tools and methods 67
 Facilitators for a better change 67
 Focus on strategic execution with 2 facilitators: 68
 Focus on people change with 3 main facilitators: 68
CONCLUSION 70
 #1: Impose your leadership as a confident leader but still close of your employees.
 #2: Bet on SMART goals.
 #3: Create and share the urgent need for change as Kotter used to say.
 #4: Favour the transformation adoption by all of the stakeholders.
 #5: Construct a stable transformation project you can follow.
 #6: Continuously communicate.
REFERENCES 72
Appendix 77
 Annexe 1: The dictionary of concepts 77
 Annexe 2: The dictionary of theories 80
 Annexe 3: The interview guide for exploratory investigations 82
 Annexe 4: The interview guides 83
 Annexe 5: The quote observation 89
  Annexe 5.1: Expansion needs (quotes) 89
  Annexe 5.2: Manager as a project leader (quotes) 91
  Annexe 5.3: Manager as a project leader (quotes) 95
 Annexe 6: interviews’ translation 103
 Annexe 7: interviews’ Transcripts 110
  Annexe 7.1: Francois Jaubert – CEO 110
  Annexe 7.2: Thomas Deville -­‐ General Manager 120
  Annexe 7.3: Francois Janin – Employee 126
  Annexe 7.4: X (anonymous) 134
  Annexe 7.5: Beata Mazsolla – Employee 140
參考文獻 References
  AFITEP-AFNOR (1992), Dictionnaire de management de projet, AFNOR, Paris, 2nd Edition
  ALSENE, ERIC (1999). Internal changes and project management structures within enterprises. International Journal of Project Management, Vol. 17, No. 6, pp. 367-376
  ARMENAKIS ACHILLES, BEDEIAN ARTHUR G. (1999) Organizational change: A review of theory and research in the 1990s. Journal of Management, Vol25, N°3, pp.293-315
  BANDURA ALBERT (1971) Social learning Theory, Stanford University, General Learning Cooperation
  BANNOCK GRAHAM (1981) The economics of small firms: return from the wilderness, blackwell, oxford
  BAREIL CELINE (2008), Démystifier la résistance au changement: Questions, constats et implications sur l’expérience du changement, Télescope
  BARTUNEK JEAN, MOCH MICHAEL (1987, December) First-Order, Second-Order, and Third-Order Change and Organization Development Interventions: A Cognitive Approach The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science Vol23, pp.483-500
  BOEH KEVIN. K., BEAMISH PAUL. W. (2006) Mergers and Acquisitions. Thousand Oaks: Sage
  BOFFO CELINE (2005). Étude diachronique des pratiques individuelles d’utilisation d’un système ERP : de l’appropriation à la gestion du changement, thèse de doctorat inédite, Montréal, HEC Montréal. pp.484
  BOURQUE M.-E. (2007) L’appropriation de changements simultanés chez les gestionnaires, mémoire de maîtrise, Montréal, HEC Montréal.
  BROWN AND AL. (1999) The art of continuous change : Liking complexity Theory and Time paced evolution in relentlessly shifting Organization, administrative science quarterly, n°42, pp.1-34
  BUONANNO GIANLUCA, FAVERIO PAOLO, PIGNI FREDERICO, RAVARINI AURELIO, SCIUTO DONATELLA, TAGLIAVINI MARCO (2005). Factors affecting ERP system adoption: A comparative analysis between SMEs and large companies. Journal of Enterprise Information Management, Vol18, n°4, pp.384-426
  COCH LESTER, FRENCH JOHN R. P. JR. (1948). Overcoming Resistance to Change, Human Relations, vol1, N°4, pp. 512-532.
  COLLERETTE PIERRE, DELISLE GILLES, PERRON RICHARD (1997) Le changement organisationnel : Théorie et pratique. Presse de l’université du Québec.
  COOKE-DAVIES TOM (2002), The “real” success factors on projects, International journal of project management, Vol.20, pp.185-190.
  CUMMINGS THOMAS G., WORLEY CHRISTOPHER G. (2009) Organization Development and Change, Chapter 8: Managing change, 10th edition
  DEMERS CHRISTIANE (1993) « La diffusion d’un changement radical: un processus de redéfinition et de restructuration de l’organisation », Communication et organisation n°3.
  DEMERS CHRISTIANE (1999). De la gestion du changement à la capacité à changer: l'évolution de la littérature sur le changement organisationnel de 1945 à aujourd’hui. Gestion-revue internationale de gestion, Vol24, n°3, pp.131-139.
  DOLAN SHIMON L, LAMOUREUX GERARD, GOSSELIN ERIC (1996). Psychologie du travail et des organisations, Gaëtan Morin pp.481-490
  EREZ MIRIAM, GOPHER DANIEL, ARZI NIRA (1990). Effects of goal difficulty, self-set goals, and monetary rewards on dual task performance. Organizational behavior and human decision processes, Vol47, pp. 247-269
  FISHEBEIN MARTIN, AJZEN ICE (1975) Belief, Attitude, Intention, and Behavior, Reading, Addison-Wesley
  FRIOUI MOHAMED (2001) Cours de management international, DEA
  GERSICK CONNIE (1991) Revolutionary Change theories : a multilevel exploration of the punctuated equilibrium paradigm, the academy of management review, vol 16, n°1, pp10-36
  GIROUX NICOLE (1991/05) « La gestion du changement stratégique », Revue Internationale de Gestion, Vol16, n°2, pp. 10
  GODKING LYNN, ALLCORN SETH (2008) Overcoming organizational inertia : A tripartite Model for achieving strategic organizational change, Journal of applied business in economics, Vol8, n°1, pp.82-95
  GREINER LARRY (1972) Evolution and revolution as organizations grow. Harvard business review Vol50, n°4
  HUNJRA AHMED (2011) Determinants of Business Success of Small and Medium Enterprises. International Journal of Business and Social Science Vol20
  HAFSI TAIEB (1995/09) Les structures dans la tête, Revue Internationale de Gestion, Vol20, n°3, pp13
  KANTER ROSABETH MOSS (2012/12) 10 reasons people resist change, Harvard Business review
  KANTER ROSABETH MOSS (2009/08) Change is hardest in the middle, harvard business review
  KHATTAK AND AL. (2012) examining critical success factors affecting ERP implementations in enterprises of Pakistan. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, pp. 606-632.
  KNODEL TED (2004) Preparing the organizational “ soil ” for measurable and sustainable change: Business value management and project governance. Journal of Change Management, n°4 , pp.45–62 .
  KOTTER JOHN P. (1995) Leading change : Why transformation efforts fail, havard business Review
  KOTTER JOHN P. (1996) Model leading change, Harvard Business School Press
  LEWIS LAURIE K. (2011/04), Organizational Change: Creating change through strategic communication, Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 21-51
  LYNCH RICHARD (2000), Corporate strategy, Prentice Hall, 2nd edition
  MILLER DANNY, FRIESEN PETER H. (1982) Innovation in conservative and entrepreneurial firms: Two models of strategic momentum . Strategic Management Journal , n°3 , pp.1–25 .
  MC CALLUM JOHN S. (2001, November) Adapt or Die, Ivey business journal
  MEANY MARY PUNG CAROLINE (2008/08) McKinsey global results: Creating organizational transformations. The McKinsey Quarterly, pp.1-7
  MIDLER CHRISTOPHE (1993), L’auto qui n’existait pas, InterEditions, Paris.
  MINTZBERG HENRI, AHLSHAND BRUCE, LAMPEL JOSEPH (1999) « Safari en pays stratégie », Edition Village Mondial, pp.333-334.
  MYERS PIERS, HULKS SALLY, WIGGINS LIZ (2012) Organizational change - Perspectives on theory and practice. Great Britain: Oxford University Press. pp.194
  NADLER D, TUSHMAN M (1989) Organizational Frame Bending: Principles for Managing Reorientation, Academy of Management Executive, Vol3, pp.194-204
  OREG SHAUL, SVERDLIK NOGA (2011). Ambivalence toward imposed change: The conflict between dispositional resistance to change and the orientation toward the change agent. Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol96, n°2, pp.338
  PEROTTI CLEMENT AND AL. (2012/01) The human side of organizational change: improving appropriation of project evolutions. Projectics, n°10, pp.41-63
  PETERS TOM, WATERMAN ROBERT (1982) In search of excellence, Harper and Rowe, New York
  PIDERIT SANDY K. (2000), Rethinking resistance and recognizing ambivalence, Academy of Management Review, Vol. 25, No. 4, pp. 783-794.
  SCHUMPETER JOSEPH, ELLIOT JOHN (2008) The Theory of Economic Development: an inquiry into profits, capital, credit, interest, and the business cycle
  WATERMAN ROBERT, PETERS THOMAS, PHILLIPS JULIEN (1980) Structure Is Not Organisation, Business Horizons, Vol23, n°3, pp.14–26
  WEICK KARL E(1979) The Social Psychology of Organizing, Addison - Wesley. 2nd Edition
  YANG TIANTIAN, ALDRICH HOWARD (2012) Out of sight but not out of mind: Why failure to account for left truncation biases research on failure rates. Journal of Business Venturing, Vol27, n°4, pp.477-492
  SPECIAL SOURCES:
  EUROPEAN COMMISSION (2003) Extract of Article 2 of the Annex of Recommendation 2003/361/EC
  LABORATORY OF EUROEPEAN RESEARCH- CATTANEO E. AND AL, EUROGROUP CONSULTING (2012) l’industrialisation en Europe, Grandir pour Croitre : Lettre ouverte à Mr Barroso, President de la Comission Européenne, Paris,
  https://www.nbia.org
  http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/policies/sme/files/sme_definition/sme_user_guide_en.pdf
  http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/policies/sme/index_en.htm
  http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/policies/sme/facts-figures-analysis/index_en.htm
  http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/policies/sme/facts-figures-analysis/sme-definition/index_en.htm
  http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/european_business/special_sbs_topics/small_medium_sized_enterprises_SMEs
  http://www.iso.org/iso/fr/iso_9000
  https://www.census.gov/econ/smallbus.html
電子全文 Fulltext
本電子全文僅授權使用者為學術研究之目的,進行個人非營利性質之檢索、閱讀、列印。請遵守中華民國著作權法之相關規定,切勿任意重製、散佈、改作、轉貼、播送,以免觸法。
論文使用權限 Thesis access permission:自定論文開放時間 user define
開放時間 Available:
校內 Campus: 已公開 available
校外 Off-campus: 已公開 available


紙本論文 Printed copies
紙本論文的公開資訊在102學年度以後相對較為完整。如果需要查詢101學年度以前的紙本論文公開資訊,請聯繫圖資處紙本論文服務櫃台。如有不便之處敬請見諒。
開放時間 available 已公開 available

QR Code