博碩士論文 etd-0616113-235128 詳細資訊


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姓名 雷漢杰(Hon-Kit Lui) 電子郵件信箱 E-mail 資料不公開
畢業系所 海洋地質及化學研究所(Marine Geology and chemistry)
畢業學位 博士(Ph.D.) 畢業時期 101學年第2學期
論文名稱(中) 人為與氣候驅動的海水酸化:觀測與模擬
論文名稱(英) Anthropogenic and Climate Driven Ocean Acidification:Observations and Modeling
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    摘要(中) 全球暖化及海水酸化,被視為大氣二氧化碳增加下一體兩面的表象。雖然全球大氣二氧化碳濃度的上升率一致,然而不同時間序列測站的數據卻顯示,海洋表水酸化率並不一致,成因仍未有所解釋。本研究透過全球六個時間序列測站的數據,以及熱力學計算,解釋造成海水pH (原位pH (pHinsitu)與在25 oC下測量的pH (pH25)) 改變率不一致的原因。本研究證明pHinsitu 與pH25 改變率無法直接比較,因為兩者在水溫改變下有反相的改變,此結果乃首次報導。由於海氣二氧化碳交換,無法在海水水溫改變後馬上達到平衡,海水暖化加快了海水酸化 (-0.00722°C-1) ;此速率為僅由海氣二氧化碳交換達到平衡下所預期的6.6倍 (-0.00109°C-1)。以上結果顯示,全球海水酸化率不一致,是因為各時間序列測站水溫改變率不同,以及使用不同pH數據 (pHinsitu 或pH25) 所造成。本研究發現,海水pH為水溫及時間的函數,而溶解態無機碳(DIC)濃度則為水溫、鹽度及時間的函數。而模擬的pH及DIC,更可進一步用來模擬海水二氧化碳分壓,以及碳酸鈣飽和度。
     在1994-2012年間,位處台灣南端的南灣表水酸化率,為大氣二氧化碳增加下所預期的1.5倍。然而, DIC 濃度的上升率卻只有預期的25%。這是因為在時間序列的觀測初期,有較多西菲律賓海海水在強聖嬰時期入侵南灣,而在2005年後,南灣海水湧升增強,加快了海水酸化。南灣的低DIC上升率,主要是因為海水鹽度下降,稀釋作用降低了因海氣二氧化碳交換,以及湧升增強所造成的DIC上升率。在西菲律賓海海水入侵以及湧升兩大作用下,南灣海水的pH於短短兩年間 (1/2003~10/2005) 下降了0.06 單位。此變化幅度,相當於35年來大氣二氧化碳增加所造成的酸化量。
       上述結果展示了氣候變化可能對海水酸化的影響,即在考量海洋氣候的變化下,海洋生態系統遭受海水酸化衝擊的時間,可能比只考慮大氣二氧化碳濃度增加所預期的來得更早。
    摘要(英) Conventional wisdom has it that global warming and seawater acidification are different manifestations of increased atmospheric CO2. Although atmospheric CO2 rises at similar rates globally, the question of why the rates at which surface seawater pH decreases differ remains unanswered. Here we use data from six decadal time-series stations globally and thermodynamic calculations to provide an explanation on the inconsistency in rates of change in pH measured at 25°C (pH25) and at in situ temperature (pHinsitu). An anti-phase between rates of change in pHinsitu and pH25 vs. rates of temperature change is demonstrated for the first time. As the air-sea CO2 exchange lags behind changing seawater temperature, warming accelerates seawater acidification (-0.00722 °C-1) at a rate 6.6-times that expected under only the air-sea CO2 equilibrium (-0.00109 °C-1). These findings explain that inconsistencies in reported acidification rates worldwide are mainly due to different rates of temperature change and different types of pH use (pHinsitu or pH25). A surprising finding is that surface ocean pH can be written as a linear function of seawater temperature and time, and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) can be written as a linear function of seawater temperature, salinity and time. The modeled pH and DIC can further be used to model the seawater pCO2 and saturation state of calcium carbonate.
    During 1994-2012, Nanwan Bay, southern Taiwan, suffered 1.5-times the expected acidification rate due to the increased atmospheric CO2, however, the rate of DIC increase is only about 25% of that expected due to the increased atmospheric CO2. This was initially due to increased intrusions of the West Philippines Sea (WPS) water during strong El Nino periods, and was then due to enhanced upwelling since 2005. The low DIC increasing rate is because the decrease in salinity dampened the increase in DIC under air-sea CO2 exchange and upwelling. Combining intrusions of WPS water and upwelling at Nanwan Bay, seawater suffered 0.06 pH decrement within just two years (1/2003~10/2005). Such a magnitude of change is equivalent to 35 years of acidification due to increased atmospheric CO2.
    The results above provide an insight on how future climate change can alter the ocean acidification. Implications are that marine ecosystems suffering from ocean acidification could happen earlier than expected when ocean climate changes are considered along with increasing atmospheric CO2.
    關鍵字(中)
  • 海水酸化
  • 酸化率
  • 海水pH
  • 二氧化碳
  • 暖化
  • 海氣二氧化碳交換
  • 關鍵字(英)
  • ocean acidification
  • warming
  • carbon dioxide
  • seawater pH
  • acidification rate
  • air-sea CO2 exchange
  • 論文目次 論文審定書 I
    Acknowledgement II
    摘要 IV
    Abstract VI
    List of Contents VIII
    List of Figure Captions XI
    List of Table Captions XVI
    Chapter 1: Introduction 1
    1-1 Ocean acidification 1
    1-2 Inconsistency in ocean acidification rates 3
    1-3 Predicted condition for 2030-2050 has already happened 4
    1-4 Ocean climate-The other driving force 5
    1-5 Objectives 8
    1-6 Outlines 9
    Chapter 2: Warming accelerates and explains inconsistencies in ocean acidification rates 11
    2-1. Introduction 13
    2-2. Methods and Materials 14
    2-2.1 Observational Data 14
    2-2.2 Open and Closed System Modeling 19
    2-3. Results and Discussion 21
    2-3.1.1 Modeled changes in pHinsitu and pH25 under changing temperature 21
    2-3.1.2 Observed rates of pHinsitu and pH25 change under changing temperature 23
    2-3.2 Verifications on the observed data and pH modeling 27
    2-3.2.1 pH25 and pHinsitu 27
    2-3.2.2 Rates of pCO2 change 29
    2-3.2.3 Modeling the pH and pCO2 time series by regression results 31
    2-3.2.4 Consistency between multiple linear regression and thermodynamic calculations 36
    2-3.3. Explanation and implications of changing temperature in ocean acidification 39
    2-4. Conclusions 43
    Chapter 3: Ocean surface DIC modeling: Implications and applications 44
    3-1. Introduction 45
    3-2 Methods and Materials 47
    3-2.1 Modeling Equations 47
    3-2.2 Initial values and coefficients determination 48
    3-3 Results and Discussion 51
    3-3.1 Modeled vs. observed 51
    3-3.2 Multiple-Linear-Regression (MLR) vs. observed 52
    3-3.3 Saturation state of aragonite modeling 57
    3-3.4 Natural vs. anthropogenic variability 59
    3-4 Conclusions 62
    Chapter 4: Fast climate driven ocean acidification in margins of the tropical western Pacific 63
    4-1. Introduction 64
    4-2. Sources of data and methods 66
    4-3. Results 69
    4-3-1. Long-tem trends in seawater carbonate chemistry 69
    4-3-2 De-seasoned Variations 73
    4-4. Discussion 76
    4-4.1. Intrusion of WPS water 76
    4-4.2. Scale of WPS seawater intrusion and impact on air-sea CO2 flux 76
    4-4.3. Enhanced upwelling and its scale 80
    4-4.4. Rates of change with changing circulation and enhanced upwelling 82
    4-4.5 Dampening DIC increase by lowering salinity 83
    4-5. Conclusion 88
    Summary 90
    Appendix I. 5. The nonlinear relationship between nutrient ratios and salinity in estuarine ecosystems: Implications for management 94
    5-1. Introduction 95
    5-2. Management strategy and salinity application 96
    5-3. Changing nutrient inventories 102
    5-4. Conclusions 105
    References 106
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    口試委員
  • 白書禎 - 召集委員
  • 劉倬騰 - 委員
  • 劉莉蓮 - 委員
  • 洪佳章 - 委員
  • 陳鎮東 - 指導教授
  • 口試日期 2013-06-06 繳交日期 2013-07-17

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