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姓名 闕帝丰(Di-feng Chueh) 電子郵件信箱 E-mail 資料不公開
畢業系所 外國語文學系研究所(Foreign Language and Literature)
畢業學位 碩士(Master) 畢業時期 93學年第2學期
論文名稱(中) 遠離家園:《格烈佛遊記》與《魯賓遜漂流記》中旅行、國家意識與身份認同危機的交互糾葛
論文名稱(英) Away from Home:Travel, Nationality, and Identity Crisis in Gulliver's Travels and Robinson Crusoe
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    摘要(中) 本論文旨在透過不同文類的書寫方式來分析強納森•史威福特(Jonathan Swift)的《格烈佛遊記》(Gulliver’s Travels)與丹尼爾•狄佛(Daniel Defoe)的《魯賓遜漂流記》(Robinson Crusoe)兩本旅遊敘事當中主角所經歷的身分認同問題。同時,希望透過身分認同問題的分析來了解兩位主角的身分認同問題如何反映出十八世紀英國的社會現象以及文化發展。本論文包含了五個章節。在第一章裡頭,我簡要地敘述十八世紀英國的社會情形以及充斥於新舊價值觀之間衝突與對立的現象。新舊價值觀的不同會引導我們了解十八世紀英國文化的發展。就寫作的歷史而言,十八世紀最重要成就是小說(novel)這種新文類的出現。當十八世紀人們有著更多不同的選擇來經營自己生活的時候,文人們也多了一種新的文類來發揮自己的才華。然而,這種新型態生活方式或是文類的出現都必須要跟原本舊型態的生活方式或是文類相依相存。就文學的範疇而言,小說這種新文類就必須要跟之前的舊文類,諷刺文學(satire),相互地合作或是競爭。
      在第二章裡頭,我試著透過文類烏托邦(utopia)的協助來了解小說跟諷刺文學這兩種文類之間的關係。雖然諷刺文學所包含的烏托邦寫作傳統是一種反向的特性,也就是反烏托邦(dystopian)書寫,但是,我們依舊可以在諷刺文學裡頭感受到作者對於群體議題的強烈關懷。相較於諷刺文學對於群體議題的關懷,小說的中心主旨反倒是以個人(individual)為其重心。根據伊恩•華特(Ian Watt)的提出的論點來說,寫實主義(Realism)是小說寫作裡頭的一個新趨勢,該趨勢則和個人主義而非群體議題緊緊地結合在一起。為了解小說以及諷刺文學關懷主題的不同,我在第三章以及第四章裡頭分別透過對於史威福特的《格烈佛遊記》以及狄佛的《魯賓遜漂流記》的討論來呈現之間的差異。在二章的第二部分裡頭,我把旅行(travel)這一個概念獨立出來討論並且試圖去了解旅行在十八世紀的重要性為何。
      在第三章以及第四章裡頭,我的討論重心轉向《格烈佛遊記》以及《魯賓遜漂流記》這兩本旅遊敘事當中主角所面臨的身分認同問題。兩相比較之下,兩個主角所遭遇到的身分認同問題各有不同。這樣的不同反映出兩書不同文類的不同關懷議題。《格烈佛遊記》屬於諷刺文學而諷刺文學的關懷重點是群體議題。《魯賓遜漂流記》則是以小說的方式書寫而其中的重點則是以個人為主。除此之外,如果我們從兩本旅遊敘事的最後結局來切入的話,我們可以發現到兩位主角身分認同問題的經歷也同時反映出十八世紀英國社會生活多樣性選擇的可能。在結論裡頭,我會根據前四章的內容來加以統整。
    摘要(英) The aim of this thesis is to understand the presentations of characters’ identity problems in Jonathan Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels and Daniel Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe in relation to their respective genre and to see how the presentations reflect the social ambience and the cultural development in eighteenth-century England. This thesis consists of five chapters. In chapter one, I will briefly summarize the social conditions in eighteenth-century England. This summary of social conditions will show eighteenth-century England as a society of conflicts and contrasts between old and new values. Two key words here, old and new values, will allude to the development of literary genres in eighteenth-century England. Novel is a term which first appears around this time in the history of literary writing and which refers to a new type of genre. As people have varieties of life styles, so do authors have a new genre to work with. However, this newness, either in a social or cultural context, coexists with the old values. In the context of literary writing, the novel, as a genre, has to compete and cooperate with one of its precursors, the genre of satire.
      In chapter two, I will try to understand the relationship between novel and satire in the light of another genre, utopia. Even though the utopian element in satire is a counterpoint, meaning the dystopian stance, of utopian traditions, there still is a strong sense of community in satirical writings. Compared with satire, the sense of individuals is the core of the genre of the novel. Realism, marked by Ian Watt, is a new trend in novel writing and it is highly connected with the idea of individualism instead of the sense of community. In order to see this difference, Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels and Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe are the two texts that I will use in chapter three and four for detailed discussions. As for the second part of chapter two, I try to single out the idea of travel with the intention to see its importance in eighteen-century England.
      In chapters three and four, my concern turns to characters’ identity problems in the two travel narratives: Gulliver’s Travels and Robinson Crusoe. Compared with each other, the characters of the two travel narratives have different identity problems and this difference is important in the way of symbolizing the different concerns of each genre: satire for a sense of community and novel for individualism. Moreover, in terms of the different endings in the two travel narratives, Gulliver and Crusoe’s experiences of their identity problems also suggest an important social condition, which is the different possibilities of life, in eighteenth-century England. In conclusion, I will give an overall review of the whole thesis.
    關鍵字(中)
  • 旅行
  • 格烈佛遊記
  • 魯賓遜漂流記
  • 身分認同
  • 國家意識
  • 關鍵字(英)
  • Robinson Crusoe
  • identity crisis
  • nationality
  • travel
  • Gulliver's Travels
  • 論文目次 Acknowledgements…………………………………………………………………..i
    English Abstract……………………………………………………………………..ii
    Chinese Abstract…………………………………………………………………….iv
    Introduction………………………………………………………………………….1
    Chapter One: Social Ambience and Cultural Development in Eighteenth-Century Britain…………………………………………………………………4
    A: Social Ambience in Eighteenth-Century Britain…………………..4
    B: Cultural Development in Eighteenth-Century Britain……………10
    C: Disharmony in Eighteenth-Century Britain………………………17
    Chapter Two: The Battle of Genres in Eighteenth-Century Literature……………..19
    A: The Battle of Genres in Eighteenth-Century Britain……………..20
    B: Utopia as a Genre Concerning Old and New Values……………..21
    C: Satire as a Genre Concerning Communal Interests………………27
    D: The Novel as a Genre Concerning Individualism………………..31
    E: Travel and Travel Narrative in Eighteenth-Century England…….35
    Chapter Three: Gulliver’s Complex: The Problems of De/Constructing Identities in Gulliver’s Travels……………………………………………………..40
    A: What is Identity................................................................................41
    B: The First Stage: Voyage to Lilliput..………………………………45
    C: The Second Stage: Voyage to Brobdingnag……………………….51
    D: The Third Stage: Voyage to Laputa, Balnibarbi, Glubbdubdrib, Luggnagg and Japan…………………………………………………..55
    E: The Fourth Stage: Voyage to the Country of the Houyhnhnms……59
    F:Conclusion………………………………………………………….64
    Chapter Four: A Middle-Station King: Double Identities in Robinson Crusoe……...66
    A: Stage I: Crusoe’s Life in England and His Solitary Exile on the Island…………………………………………………………………66
    B: Stage II: Crusoe as a Communal King……………………………80
    C: Stage III: Crusoe as a Middle-Station Merchant………………….84
    D: Conclusion………………………………………………………...87
    Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………...89
    Notes…………………………………………………………………………………95
    Works Cited…………………………………………………………………………..98
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  • 口試日期 2005-06-13 繳交日期 2005-06-20

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