Responsive image
博碩士論文 etd-0623109-153501 詳細資訊
Title page for etd-0623109-153501
論文名稱
Title
管理階級派外人員之創業精神的跨文化影響因素
Expatriates in Management Level: The Predictors of Entrepreneurship in Cross-cultural Contexts
系所名稱
Department
畢業學年期
Year, semester
語文別
Language
學位類別
Degree
頁數
Number of pages
142
研究生
Author
指導教授
Advisor
召集委員
Convenor
口試委員
Advisory Committee
口試日期
Date of Exam
2009-06-20
繳交日期
Date of Submission
2009-06-23
關鍵字
Keywords
文化智商、文化距離、派外傾向人格特質、派外適應、國際創業家精神
Cultural Intelligence (CQ), Cultural Distance, Expatriate-Oriented Personality, International Entrepreneurship, Expatriate Adjustment
統計
Statistics
本論文已被瀏覽 5891 次,被下載 0
The thesis/dissertation has been browsed 5891 times, has been downloaded 0 times.
中文摘要
管理階級派外人員對海外子公司的整體營運有重大的影響,所以對跨國企業而言,了解派外人員之創業精神的跨文化影響因素是十分重要的。因此,以230位管理階級派外人員為研究對象,本研究探討派外人員的人格特質、文化智商、派外適應與國際創業家精神之間的關係,並以文化距離為干擾變數。研究結果如下所示:
1. 派外傾向人格特質包含高傾向的責任感、合群性、外向性、情緒穩定(亦即較低度的情緒敏感性)、以及彈性包容;國際創業家精神則包括了本土的內部開創、外部市場開拓、以及冒險性創新。
2. 派外傾向人格特質對派外人員的文化智商以及國際創業家精神有正向影響。
3. 文化智商對派外適應與國際創業家精神有正向影響。
4. 派外傾向人格特質會經由文化智商的中介效果間接地對派外適應以及國際創業家精神產生正向影響。
5. 不論文化距離大小,派外傾向的人格特質對國際創業家精神有顯著的正向影響;當文化距離中高時,文化智商對派外人員的國際創業家精神能產生最大的正向影響效果;而當文化距離小時,派外適應能提升派外人員的國際創業家精神。
Abstract
Since the expatriates in management level have profound influences on the overall operation of overseas subsidiaries, it is significant for multinational corporations to understand the predictors of expatriate’s entrepreneurship in cross-cultural contexts. Hence, based on 230 effective samples from expatriates in management level, this research investigates the relationships among expatriate’s personality, cultural intelligence (CQ), expatriate adjustment, and international entrepreneurship, and cultural distance as a moderator. The results are outlined as follows.
1. Expatriate-oriented personality consists of high conscientiousness, agreeableness, extraversion, emotional stability (i.e., low neuroticism), and flexibility and empathy; international entrepreneurship comprises local internal initiative, external market exploitation, and venture exploration.
2. Expatriate-oriented personality has positive influences on expatriate’s CQ and international entrepreneurship.
3. CQ has positive influences on expatriate adjustment and international entrepreneurship.
4. Expatriate-oriented personality has positive influences on expatriate adjustment and international entrepreneurship through the mediating effect of CQ.
5. No matter how the cultural distance is, expatriate-oriented personality is able to enhance expatriate’s international entrepreneurship; in median-high cultural distance, CQ’s role in international entrepreneurship achieves its maximum effectiveness; in smaller cultural distance, expatriate adjustment better promotes the performance of international entrepreneurship.
目次 Table of Contents
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Research Background and Motivation 1
1.2 Research Objectives 3
1.3 Expected Contribution 4
1.4 Research Procedure 4
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 7
2.1 Personality 7
2.1.1 Big-Five Personality 7
2.1.2 Personality and Expatriate Success 9
2.1.3 Summary of Personality Literature 11
2.2 Cultural Intelligence 12
2.2.1 Concept of CQ 12
2.2.2 Distinctiveness of CQ 15
2.2.3 Relationship between Personality and CQ 17
2.2.4 Summary of CQ Literature 20
2.3 Expatriate Adjustment 21
2.3.1 Concept of Expatriate Adjustment 21
2.3.2 Expatriate Adjustment and Other Constructs 24
2.3.3 Summary of Expatriate Adjustment Literature 30
2.4 International Entrepreneurship 31
2.4.1 Concept of International Entrepreneurship 32
2.4.2 International Entrepreneurship and other Constructs 36
2.4.3 Summary of International Entrepreneurship Literature 45
2.5 Cultural Distance 49
2.5.1 Concept of Cultural Distance 49
2.5.2 Cultural Distance and other Constructs 52
2.5.3 Summary of Cultural distance Literature 55
CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHOD 56
3.1 Theoretical Framework 56
3.2 Hypotheses 57
3.3 Instrument and Measurement 59
3.3.1 Expatriate-oriented Personality 59
3.3.2 Cultural Intelligence (CQ) 61
3.3.3 Expatriate Adjustment 62
3.3.4 International Entrepreneurship 63
3.3.5 Cultural Distance 64
3.4 Sampling 65
3.5 Data Analysis 65
CHAPTER 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 69
4.1 Sample Description 69
4.2 Research Dimension Identification 74
4.2.1 Expatriate-oriented Personality 74
4.2.2 Cultural Intelligence (CQ) 78
4.2.3 Expatriate Adjustment 78
4.2.4 International Entrepreneurship 81
4.2.5 Cultural Distance 83
4.3 Correlation between Research Dimensions 84
4.3.1 Expatriate-oriented Personality and CQ 84
4.3.2 Expatriate-oriented Personality and Expatriate Adjustment 85
4.3.3 CQ and Expatriate Adjustment 86
4.3.4 Expatriate-oriented Personality and International Entrepreneurship 87
4.3.5 CQ and International Entrepreneurship 88
4.3.6 Expatriate Adjustment and International Entrepreneurship 88
4.4 Integrative Model with Cultural Distance 89
4.4.1 Integrative Model 90
4.4.2 Moderating Effects of Cultural Distance 94
4.4.2.1 Surface-level Distance 95
4.4.2.2 Deep-level Distance 100
CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS 105
5.1 Research Conclusion 105
5.1.1 Expatriate’s Personality and Entrepreneurship 105
5.1.2 Integrative Model with Cultural Distance 106
5.2 Practical Implications 111
5.3 Limitations and Future Research 113
REFERENCES 116
APPENDIX 124
參考文獻 References
Ang, S., & Van Dyne, L . 2008. Conceptualization of cultural intelligence: Definition, distinctiveness, and nomological network. In S. Ang & L. Van Dyne (Eds.), Handbook of cultural intelligence: Theory, measurement, and applications, 3-15. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe.
Ang, S., Van Dyne, L., & Koh, C. 2006. Personality correlates of the four-factor model of cultural intelligence. Group & Organization Management, 31(1): 100-123.
Ang, S., Van Dyne, L., Koh, C., Ng, K. Y., Templer, K. J., Tay, C., & Chandrasekar, N.A. 2007. Cultural intelligence: Its measurement and effects on cultural judgment and decision making, cultural adaptation and task performance. Management and Organization Review 3:3 335–371.
Barkema, H., & Chvyrkov, O. 2002. What sort of top management team is needed at the helm of internationally diversified firms? In M. A. Hitt, R. D. Ireland, S. M. Camp, & D. L. Sexton (Eds.), Strategic Entrepreneurship: Creating a new mindset, 289-305. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publisher.
Bateman, T. S., & Crant, J.M. 1993. The proactive component of organizational behavior: A measure and correlates. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 14: 103-118.
Bhaskar-Shrinivas, P., Harrison, D. A., Shaffer, M. A., & Luk, D. M. 2005. Input-based and time-based models of international adjustment: Meta-analytic evidence and theoretical extensions. Academy of Management Journal, 48: 257-281.
Black, J. S., Mendenhall, M., & Oddou, G. 1991. Toward a comprehensive model of international adjustment: An integration of multiple theoretical perspectives. Academy of Management Review, 16(2): 291-317.
Byham, W. C. 1996. Developing dimension/competency-based human resources systems. Development Dimensions International.
Byrne, B. M. 2001. Structural Equation Modeling with AMOS: Basic concepts, applications, and programming. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Caligiuri, P. M. 2000. The big five personality characteristics as predictors of expatriate’s desire to terminate the assignment and supervisor-rated performance. Personnel Psychology, 53(1): 67-88.
Costa, P. T., Jr., & McCrae, R. R. 1995a. Domains and facets: Hierarchical personality assessment using the revised NEO Personality Inventory. Journal of Personality Assessment, 64: 21-50.
Drori, I., Honig, B., & Ginsberg, A. 2006. Transnational entrepreneurship: Toward a unifying theoretical framework. Academy of Management, Q1-Q6.
Earley, P. C., & Ang, S. 2003. Cultural intelligence: Individual interactions across cultures. Stanford Business Books: Stanford, CA.
Gertsen, M. C. 1990. Intercultural competence and expatriates. International Journal of Human Resources Management, 11(3): 341–362.
Gaur, A. S., Delios, A., & Singh, K. 2005. Institutional environments, staffing strategies, and subsidiary performance: lessons from Japanese MNCs. Academy of Management Proceedings, IM: R1-R6.
Gibson, C. B., & Dibble, R. 2008.Culture inside and out: Developing a collaboration’s capacity to externally adjust. In S. Ang & L. Van Dyne (Eds.), Handbook of cultural intelligence: Theory, measurement, and applications, 221-240. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe.
Gong, Y. 2003. Subsidiary staffing multinational enterprises: Agency, Resources, and Performance. Academy of Management Journal, 46(6): 728-739.
Hofstede, G. 2001. Culture’s consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations (2nd ed.). Sage Publications: Thousand Oaks, CA.
Huang, T. J., Chi S. C., & Lawler J. J. 2005. The relationship between expatriates’ personality traits and their adjustment to international assignments. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 16(9): 1656-1670.
Kim, K., Kirkman, B. L., & Chen, G. 2008. Cultural intelligence and international assignment effectiveness: A conceptual model and preliminary findings. In S. Ang & L. Van Dyne (Eds.), Handbook of cultural intelligence: Theory, measurement, and applications, 71-90. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe.
Kraimer, M. L., Wayne, S. J., & Jaworski, R. A. 2001. Sources of support and expatriate performance: The mediating role of expatriate adjustment. Personnel Psychology, 54(1): 71-99.
Kumar, N., Rose, R. C., & Subramaniam. 2008. The effects of personality and cultural intelligence on international assignment effectiveness: A review. Journal of Social Sciences, 4 (4): 320-328.
Lee, L., & Wong, P. K. 2006. How does an entrepreneur’s ability influence the propensity to exploit novel opportunities? The moderating role of personality and environment. MPRA Munich Personal RePEc Archive (www document: http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/597/1/MPRA_paper_597.pdf)
Lee, L.Y., & Sukoco, B.M. 2007. The effects of expatriate personality and cultural intelligence on the expatriate adjustment: The moderating role of expatriate. In: Proceedings of the 13th Asia Pacific Management Conference, 922-931. (http://infotech.monash.edu.au/research/centres/cdsesr/apmc/papers-pdf/t070.pdf)
Leiba-O’Sullivan, S. 1999. The distinction between stable and dynamic cross-cultural competencies: Implications for expatriate trainability. Journal of International Business Studies, 30: 709–725.
Major, D. A., & Turner, J. E., & Fletcher, T. D. 2006. Linking proactive personality and the big five to motivation to learn and development activity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(4): 927-935.
Mannor, M. J. 2008. Top executives and global leadership: At intersection of cultural intelligence and strategic leadership theory. In S. Ang & L. Van Dyne (Eds.), Handbook of cultural intelligence: Theory, measurement, and applications, 91-106. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe.
McDougall, P. P., & Oviatt, B. M. 2000. International entrepreneurship: The intersection of two research paths. Academy of Management Journal, 43(5): 902-906.
McDougall, P. P., & Oviatt, B. M. 2003. Some fundamental issues in international entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice. (www document: http://www.usasbe.org/knowledge/whitepapers/mcdougall2003.pdf.)
Morris, M. H., Altman, J. W., & Pitt, L. F. 1999. The need for adaptation in successful business concepts: Strategies for entrepreneurs. Annual USASBE Conference.
Morris, M. H., David, L., & Allen, J. W. 1994. Fostering corporate entrepreneurship: Cross-cultural comparisons of the importance of individualism versus collectivism. Journal of International Business Studies, 25(1): 65-89.
Nicholson, N., Fenton-O’Creevy, M. P., Soane, E., & William, P. 2005. Personality and domain-specific risk-taking. Journal of Risk Research, 8: 157–176.
Ones, D. S., & Viswesvaran, C. 1999. Relative importance of personality dimensions for expatriate selection: A policy capturing study. Human Performance, 12(3/4): 275-294.
Pearson, C. A.L., & Chatterjee, S. R. 2001. Differences and similarities of entrepreneurial characteristics in a diverse social setting: Evidence from Australian and Singapore managers. Journal of Enterprising Culture, 9(3): 273-289.
Peterson, R. S., Smith, D. B., Martorana, P. V., & Owens, P. D. 2003. The impact of chief executive officer personality on top management team dynamics: one mechanism by which leadership affects organizational performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5): 795-808.
Raad, B. D., & Peabody, D. 2005. Cross-culturally recurrent personality factors: Analyses of three factors. European journal of personality, 19: 451-474.
Reuber, A. R., & Fischer, E. 1997. The Influence of the Management Team’s International Experience on the Internationalization Behaviors of SMEs. Journal of International Business Studies, 28(4): 807-825.
Rockstuhl, T., & Ng, K. Y. 2008. The effects of cultural intelligence on interpersonal trust in multicultural teams. In S. Ang & L. Van Dyne (Eds.), Handbook of cultural intelligence: Theory, measurement, and applications, 206-220. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe.
Selmer, Jan. 2001. Expatriate selection: back to basics? International Journal of Human Resource Management, 12(8): 1219-1233.
Shaffer, M., & Miller, G. 2008. Cultural intelligence: A key success factor for expatriate. In S. Ang & L. Van Dyne (Eds.), Handbook of cultural intelligence: Theory, measurement, and applications, 107-125. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe.
Shaffer, M. A., Harrison, D. A., Gregersen, H., Black, J. S., & Ferzandi, L.A. 2006. You can take it with you: Individual differences and expatriate effectiveness. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(1): 109-125.
Shenkar, O. 2001. Cultural distance revisited: Towards a more rigorous conceptualization and measurement of cultural differences. Journal of International Business Studies, 32(3): 519-535.
Shipton, H. J., West, M. A., Parkes, C. L., Dawson, J. F., & Patterson, M. G. 2006. When promoting positive feelings pays: Aggregate job satisfaction, work design features, and innovation in manufacturing organizations. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 15(4): 404-430.
Stahl, G. K., & Caligiuri, P. 2005. The effectiveness of expatriate coping strategies: The moderating role of cultural distance, position level, and time on the international assignment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(4): 603-615.
Tan, J. S., & Chua, R. Y. J. 2003. Training and developing cultural intelligence. In P. C. Earley & S. Ang (Eds.), Cultural intelligence: Individual interactions across cultures. Stanford Business Books: Stanford, CA.
Tarique, I., & Takeuchi, R. 2008. Developing cultural intelligence: The roles of international nonwork experinces. In S. Ang & L. Van Dyne (Eds.), Handbook of cultural intelligence: Theory, measurement, and applications, 56-70. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe.
Thomas, A.S., & Mueller, S. L. 2000. A case for comparative entrepreneurship: assessing the relevance of culture. Journal of International Business Studies, 31(2): 287-301.
Van Vianen, A. E. M., & Kristof-Brown, A. L. 2004. Fitting in: Surface- and deep-level cultural differences and expatriates’ adjustment. Academy of Management Journal, 47(5): 697-709.
Ward, C., & Fischer, R. 2008. Personality, Cultural intelligence, and cross-cultural adaptation: A test of the mediation hypothesis. In S. Ang & L. Van Dyne (Eds.), Handbook of cultural intelligence: Theory, measurement, and applications, 159-173. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe.
Wiklund, J., & Shepherd, D. 2003. Knowledge-based resources, entrepreneurial orientation, and the performance of small and medium-sized businesses. Strategic Management Journal, 24: 1307-1314.
Wright, R. W., & Ricks, D. A. 1994. Trends in international business research: Twenty-five years later. Journal of International Business Studies, 25: 687-701.
Wu, M. C., & Liao, W. S. 2008. Organizational commitment of IT/IS professionals in Taiwan: Focus on organizational cultures and personal characteristics. Proceeding of Business and Information (BAI), Vol. 5, Seoul, South Koera, CD-PO-1. (www document: http://academic-papers.org/ocs2/session/Papers/Poster/45.doc)
Yeaton, K., & Hall, N. 2008. Expatriates: Reducing failure rates. Journal of Corporate Accounting & Finance, 2008: 19(3), 75-78.
Zahra, S. A. & George, G. 2002. International entrepreneurship: The current status of the field and future research agenda. In M.A. Hitt, R.D. Ireland, S.M. Camp, & D.L. Sexton (Eds.), Strategic entrepreneurship: Creating a new mindset, 255-288. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.
Zhao, H. & Seibert, S. E. 2006. The big five personality dimensions and entrepreneurial status: A meta-analytical review. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(2): 259-271.
何金銘 (2006),統計分析方法:SPSS軟體的輔助分析,台南,台灣復文興業股份有限公司。
黃芳銘 (2007),結構方程模式:理論與應用(五版),台北:五南圖書出版公司。
電子全文 Fulltext
本電子全文僅授權使用者為學術研究之目的,進行個人非營利性質之檢索、閱讀、列印。請遵守中華民國著作權法之相關規定,切勿任意重製、散佈、改作、轉貼、播送,以免觸法。
論文使用權限 Thesis access permission:校內校外均不公開 not available
開放時間 Available:
校內 Campus:永不公開 not available
校外 Off-campus:永不公開 not available

您的 IP(校外) 位址是 3.236.142.143
論文開放下載的時間是 校外不公開

Your IP address is 3.236.142.143
This thesis will be available to you on Indicate off-campus access is not available.

紙本論文 Printed copies
紙本論文的公開資訊在102學年度以後相對較為完整。如果需要查詢101學年度以前的紙本論文公開資訊,請聯繫圖資處紙本論文服務櫃台。如有不便之處敬請見諒。
開放時間 available 已公開 available

QR Code