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Expatriates in Management Level: The Predictors of Entrepreneurship in Cross-cultural Contexts
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Cultural Intelligence (CQ), Cultural Distance, Expatriate-Oriented Personality, International Entrepreneurship, Expatriate Adjustment
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Since the expatriates in management level have profound influences on the overall operation of overseas subsidiaries, it is significant for multinational corporations to understand the predictors of expatriate’s entrepreneurship in cross-cultural contexts. Hence, based on 230 effective samples from expatriates in management level, this research investigates the relationships among expatriate’s personality, cultural intelligence (CQ), expatriate adjustment, and international entrepreneurship, and cultural distance as a moderator. The results are outlined as follows.
1. Expatriate-oriented personality consists of high conscientiousness, agreeableness, extraversion, emotional stability (i.e., low neuroticism), and flexibility and empathy; international entrepreneurship comprises local internal initiative, external market exploitation, and venture exploration.
2. Expatriate-oriented personality has positive influences on expatriate’s CQ and international entrepreneurship.
3. CQ has positive influences on expatriate adjustment and international entrepreneurship.
4. Expatriate-oriented personality has positive influences on expatriate adjustment and international entrepreneurship through the mediating effect of CQ.
5. No matter how the cultural distance is, expatriate-oriented personality is able to enhance expatriate’s international entrepreneurship; in median-high cultural distance, CQ’s role in international entrepreneurship achieves its maximum effectiveness; in smaller cultural distance, expatriate adjustment better promotes the performance of international entrepreneurship.
目次 Table of Contents
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Research Background and Motivation 1
1.2 Research Objectives 3
1.3 Expected Contribution 4
1.4 Research Procedure 4
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 7
2.1 Personality 7
2.1.1 Big-Five Personality 7
2.1.2 Personality and Expatriate Success 9
2.1.3 Summary of Personality Literature 11
2.2 Cultural Intelligence 12
2.2.1 Concept of CQ 12
2.2.2 Distinctiveness of CQ 15
2.2.3 Relationship between Personality and CQ 17
2.2.4 Summary of CQ Literature 20
2.3 Expatriate Adjustment 21
2.3.1 Concept of Expatriate Adjustment 21
2.3.2 Expatriate Adjustment and Other Constructs 24
2.3.3 Summary of Expatriate Adjustment Literature 30
2.4 International Entrepreneurship 31
2.4.1 Concept of International Entrepreneurship 32
2.4.2 International Entrepreneurship and other Constructs 36
2.4.3 Summary of International Entrepreneurship Literature 45
2.5 Cultural Distance 49
2.5.1 Concept of Cultural Distance 49
2.5.2 Cultural Distance and other Constructs 52
2.5.3 Summary of Cultural distance Literature 55
CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHOD 56
3.1 Theoretical Framework 56
3.2 Hypotheses 57
3.3 Instrument and Measurement 59
3.3.1 Expatriate-oriented Personality 59
3.3.2 Cultural Intelligence (CQ) 61
3.3.3 Expatriate Adjustment 62
3.3.4 International Entrepreneurship 63
3.3.5 Cultural Distance 64
3.4 Sampling 65
3.5 Data Analysis 65
CHAPTER 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 69
4.1 Sample Description 69
4.2 Research Dimension Identification 74
4.2.1 Expatriate-oriented Personality 74
4.2.2 Cultural Intelligence (CQ) 78
4.2.3 Expatriate Adjustment 78
4.2.4 International Entrepreneurship 81
4.2.5 Cultural Distance 83
4.3 Correlation between Research Dimensions 84
4.3.1 Expatriate-oriented Personality and CQ 84
4.3.2 Expatriate-oriented Personality and Expatriate Adjustment 85
4.3.3 CQ and Expatriate Adjustment 86
4.3.4 Expatriate-oriented Personality and International Entrepreneurship 87
4.3.5 CQ and International Entrepreneurship 88
4.3.6 Expatriate Adjustment and International Entrepreneurship 88
4.4 Integrative Model with Cultural Distance 89
4.4.1 Integrative Model 90
4.4.2 Moderating Effects of Cultural Distance 94
18.104.22.168 Surface-level Distance 95
22.214.171.124 Deep-level Distance 100
CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS 105
5.1 Research Conclusion 105
5.1.1 Expatriate’s Personality and Entrepreneurship 105
5.1.2 Integrative Model with Cultural Distance 106
5.2 Practical Implications 111
5.3 Limitations and Future Research 113
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