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姓名 吳俊毅(Chun-I Wu) 電子郵件信箱 E-mail 資料不公開
畢業系所 環境工程研究所(Environmental Engineering)
畢業學位 碩士(Master) 畢業時期 95學年第2學期
論文名稱(中) 高雄市大氣中醛酮類化合物之濃度特徵及時空分布調查分析
論文名稱(英) Investigation of temporal and spatial characteristics of carbonyl compounds in the Atmosphere in Kaohsiung
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    摘要(中) 本研究利用LpDNPH−Cartridge 及微電腦空氣採樣器分析高雄市
    (楠梓站及小港站)四季大氣中醛酮類化合物 (Carbonyls)之濃度特
    徵,並探討醛酮類化合物濃度四季變化及日變化,最後利用因子分析
    推估高雄市境內之可能污染來源。
    楠梓站濃度最高為乙醛 (27.83 μg/m3) , 其次為甲醛(5.03
    μg/m3);小港站濃度最高為乙醛(28.91 μg/m3),其次為甲醛(6.92
    μg/m3)。小港站之總Carbonyls 濃度 (57.86 μg/m3)高於楠梓站 (49.74
    μg/m3)。
    季節性方面,楠梓站夏季與冬季濃度分別為65.42 μg/m3 及25.06
    μg/m3,小港站夏季與冬季濃度分別為85.09 μg/m3 及37.12 μg/m3,推
    估為夏季由於光化學反應較強,導致Carbonyls 濃度為最高。日變化
    方面,早上及晚上時段因交通車流量較高,使得Carbonyls 濃度較高。
    以因子分析法解析Carbonyls 濃度,推估出楠梓地區主要污染物
    來源為移動源 (機車、柴油車與汽車)排放及固定源 (工業源、餐飲源
    與化學製程)排放;小港地區污染物貢獻來源為移動源排放 (機車與
    汽車)、固定源 (工業源與餐飲源)排放及二次光氧化作用生成。
    摘要(英) The concentrations of atmospheric carbonyls were studied by the
    LpDNPH-Cartridge and the microcomputer air sampling device at Nanzi and
    Siaogang sites in Kaohsiung city. Source apportionment was determined by the factor
    analysis.
    The results showed that the highest concentrations of carbonyls was
    acetaldehyde (27.83 μg/m3) at Nanzi, followed by formaldehyde (5.03 μg/m3). At
    Siaogang, the highest concentrations of carbonyls was acetaldehyde (28.91 μg/m3),
    followed by formaldehyde (6.92 μg/m3). The concentrations of total carbonyls was
    higher at Siaogang (57.86 μg/m3) than those at Nanzi (49.74 μg/m3) .
    The concentrations of total carbonyls at Nanzi were 65.42 μg/m3 in summer and
    25.06 μg/m3 in winter, and were 85.09 μg/m3 in summer and 37.12 μg/m3 in winter at
    Siaogang, due to the fact that summer has stronger photochemical activities than in
    winter. Additionally, peak rush hours of the traffics, either in the morning or at night,
    would result in increased concentration of Carbonyls was higher.
    The concentrations of atmospheric carbonyls were studied by the LpDNPH-Cartridge and the microcomputer air sampling device at Nanzi and Siaogang sites in Kaohsiung city. Source apportionment was determined by the factor analysis.
      The results showed that the highest concentrations of carbonyls was acetaldehyde (27.83 μg/m3) at Nanzi, followed by formaldehyde (5.03 μg/m3). At Siaogang, the highest concentrations of carbonyls was acetaldehyde (28.91 μg/m3), followed by formaldehyde (6.92 μg/m3). The concentrations of total carbonyls was higher at Siaogang (57.86 μg/m3) than those at Nanzi (49.74 μg/m3) .
      The concentrations of total carbonyls at Nanzi were 65.42 μg/m3 in summer and 25.06 μg/m3 in winter, and were 85.09 μg/m3 in summer and 37.12 μg/m3 in winter at Siaogang, due to the fact that summer has stronger photochemical activities than in winter. Additionally, peak rush hours of the traffics, either in the morning or at night, would result in increased concentration of Carbonyls was higher.
      Source apportionment analysis using factor analysis shows that the principle sources at Nanzi were traffic exhausts (motor, diesel, and gasoline vehicle) and stationary sources (industry, restaurant and chemical processes). The main sources at Siaogang were traffic exhausts (motor and gasoline vehicle), stationary sources (industry and restaurant) and secondary photo-chemical reactions.
    關鍵字(中)
  • 日變化
  • 季節變化
  • 醛酮類化合物
  • 因子分析
  • 關鍵字(英)
  • Seasonal variation
  • Factor analysis
  • Diurnal variation
  • Carbonyl compounds
  • 論文目次 總目錄
    頁碼
    謝誌 I
    中文摘要 II
    英文摘要 III
    總目錄 IV
    表目錄 VII
    圖目錄 IX
    附表目錄 X
    附圖目錄 X
    第一章 前言 1-1
    1.1 研究緣起 1-1
    1.2 研究目標 1-2
    第二章 相關研究及文獻回顧 2-1
    2.1 高雄市近年空氣及氣象背景資料概述 2-1
    2.1.1 空氣品質PSI變化趨勢 2-1
    2.1.2 各空氣污染物濃度變化趨勢 2-3
    2.1.3 高雄市空氣污染物排放量概估 2-8
    2.1.4 高雄地區歷年氣象概述 2-11
    2.2 大氣中揮發性有機物 (VOC)來源 2-14
    2.2.1 大氣揮發性有機物 (VOC)性質及排放特徵 2-14
    2.2.2 固定源揮發性有機物排放特性 2-17
    2.2.3 移動源揮發性有機物排放特性 2-18
    2.2.4 自然源VOC的流佈及影響 2-19
    2.3 醛酮類化合物 (Carbonyl compound) 2-21
    2.3.1 醛酮類化合物之特性 2-21
    2.3.2 醛酮類化合物之來源及排放特徵 2-22
    2.3.3 醛酮類化合物在大氣環境中之生成與轉化 2-25
    2.3.4 醛酮類化合物及其前驅物致臭氧生成特性 2-26
      2.3.5 醛酮類化合物之健康危害 2-27
      2.3.6 醛酮類化合物之濃度分布 2-28
    2.4 受體模式 2-29
    2.4.1 主成分分析/絕對主成分分析 2-30
    第三章 研究方法與步驟 3-1
    3.1 研究架構與流程 3-1
    3.2 大氣中醛酮類化合物採樣地點及時段規劃 3-2
    3.3 採樣方法與設備 3-4
    3.3.1 空氣採樣器 3-4
    3.3.2 吸附管 (Cartridge) 3-6
    3.4 採樣程序 3-7
    3.5 樣品分析 3-7
     3.6 分析設備及程序 3-7
     3.7 因子分析與受體模式之理論基礎 3-8
      3.7.1 因子分析 3-8
    3.8 Carbonyls分析之品質保證與品質控制 3-12
     3.8.1 空白試驗 3-12
     3.8.2 方法偵測極限 3-12
     3.8.3 檢量線的配置 3-13
      3.8.4 準確度 3-13
     3.8.5 精密度 (RSD) 3-14
    第四章 結果與討論 4-1
    4.1 大氣中醛酮類化合物 (Carbonyl compounds)濃度 4-1
    4.1.1 採樣時間之氣象資料 4-1
    4.2 大氣中醛酮類化合物濃度 4-3
    4.2.1 大氣中醛酮類化合物之特性 4-3
    4.2.2 大氣中醛酮類化合物濃度之季節變化分布 4-9
    4.2.3 大氣中醛酮類化合物濃度之日變化分布 4-14
    4.3 大氣中醛酮類化合物貢獻來源分析 4-21
    4.3.1 醛酮類化合物之夏季及冬季貢獻來源分析 4-22
    4.3.2 醛酮類化合物之貢獻來源分析 4-27
    4.4 醛酮類化合物濃度與臭氧濃度相關性分析 4-30
    第五章 結論與建議 5-1
    5.1 結論 5-1
    5.2 建議 5-2
    參考文獻 參-1
    附錄A 空氣中氣態之醛類化合物檢驗方法 附A-1
    附錄B 楠梓站及小港站四季採樣時程之各時段風花圖 附B-1
    附錄C 楠梓站及小港站Carbonyls大氣採樣之各時段濃度表 附C-1
    附錄D 個人簡歷 附D-1

    表目錄
    頁碼
    表2.1-1 民國86 - 95年高雄市四空品測站臭氧 (O3)事件日每年之天數 2-2
    表2.1-2 民國86 - 95年高雄市四空品測站懸浮微粒 (PM10)事件日每年之天數 2-2
    表2.1-3 民國92年高雄市各污染源排放總表 2-10
    表2.1-4 高雄地區近十年各月份平均氣象資料統計表 2-13
    表2.2-1 揮發性有機物 (VOC)排放源 2-15
    表2.2-2 高雄市地區固定與移動污染源排放量 2-16
    表2.3-1 18種Carbonyls之分子量及物理特性 2-22
    表2.3-2 各污染源之Carbonyls濃度特徵之比較 2-25
    表3.2-1 本研究分析之18種Carbonyls物種 3-3
    表3.2-2 高雄市區空氣品質監測網測站環境資料一覽表 3-4
    表3.2-3 楠梓站及小港站之採樣日期 3-4
    表3.8-1 Carbonyls標準品之成分及濃度 (Rescek) 3-15
    表3.8-2 標準品檢量線 3-16
    表3.8-3 18種Carbonyls之回收率 3-17
    表4.1-1 楠梓站採樣時間氣象資料 4-2
    表4.1-2 小港站採樣時間氣象資料 4-2
    表4.2-1 楠梓站與小港站Carbonyls濃度 4-4
    表4.2-2 楠梓站與小港站附近道路之車流量 4-5
    表4.2-3 楠梓站與小港站各Carbonyls濃度之百分比 4-6
    表4.2-4 本研究Carbonyls濃度與其他地區之相關文獻比較 4-8
    表4.2-5 楠梓站Carbonyls之四季濃度分布 4-11
    表4.2-6 小港站Carbonyls之四季濃度分布 4-12
    表4.2-7 楠梓站Carbonyls各時段濃度 4-16
    表4.2-8 小港站Carbonyls各時段濃度 4-17
    表4.3-1 移動車輛尾氣Carbonyls平均排放指紋 4-21
    表4.3-2 楠梓站夏季之Carbonyls平均濃度因子分析結果 4-23
    表4.3-3 楠梓站冬季之Carbonyls平均濃度因子分析結果 4-24
    表4.3-4 小港站夏季之Carbonyls平均濃度因子分析結果 4-25
    表4.3-5 小港站冬季之Carbonyls平均濃度因子分析結果 4-26
    表4.3-6 楠梓站之Carbonyls平均濃度因子分析結果 4-28
    表4.3-7 小港站之Carbonyls平均濃度因子分析結果 4-29
    表4.4-1 楠梓站及小港站各時段Total Carbonyls與O3相關性
    分析 4-30

    圖目錄
    頁碼
    圖2.1-1 高屏地區空氣品質現況 (86 - 95年) 2-1
    圖2.1-2 高雄市各測站PM10逐月濃度變化趨勢 2-4
    圖2.1-3 高雄市各測站SO2逐月濃度變化趨勢 2-5
    圖2.1-4 高雄市各測站O3逐月濃度變化趨勢 2-6
    圖2.1-5 高雄市各測站NOX逐月濃度變化趨勢 2-7
    圖2.2-1 民國92年高雄市地區固定與移動源NMHC排放百分比 2-16
    圖3.1-1 研究架構流程圖 3-1
    圖3.2-1 高雄市地區Carbonyls採樣點周界環境示意圖 3-3
    圖3.3-1 Airchek 2000空氣採樣器 3-5
    圖3.3-2 LpDNPH-Cartridge吸附管示意圖 3-6
    圖4.2-1 楠梓站及小港站之總Carbonyls四季濃度分布 4-9
    圖4.2-2 (a)楠梓站與(b)小港站四季之各Carbonyls濃度分布 4-13
    圖4.2-3 (a)楠梓站與(b)小港站四時段之各Carbonyls濃度分布 4-19
    圖4.2-4 楠梓站及小港站四時段之總Carbonyls濃度 4-20

    附表目錄
    頁碼
    附表C-1 楠梓站春季carbonyls大氣採樣之各時段濃度表 C-1
    附表C-2 楠梓站夏季carbonyls大氣採樣之各時段濃度表 C-2
    附表C-3 楠梓站秋季carbonyls大氣採樣之各時段濃度表 C-3
    附表C-4 楠梓站冬季carbonyls大氣採樣之各時段濃度表 C-4
    附表C-5 小港站春季carbonyls大氣採樣之各時段濃度表 C-5
    附表C-6 小港站夏季carbonyls大氣採樣之各時段濃度表 C-6
    附表C-7 小港站秋季carbonyls大氣採樣之各時段濃度表 C-7
    附表C-8 小港站冬季carbonyls大氣採樣之各時段濃度表 C-8
    附圖目錄
    頁碼
    附圖B-1 楠梓站春季採樣日期 (時段)之風花圖 B-1
    附圖B-2 楠梓站夏季採樣日期 (時段)之風花圖 B-3
    附圖B-3 楠梓站秋季採樣日期 (時段)之風花圖 B-5
    附圖B-4 楠梓站冬季採樣日期 (時段)之風花圖 B-7
    附圖B-5 小港站春季採樣日期 (時段)之風花圖 B-9
    附圖B-6 小港站夏季採樣日期 (時段)之風花圖 B-11
    附圖B-7 小港站秋季採樣日期 (時段)之風花圖 B-13
    附圖B-8 小港站冬季採樣日期 (時段)之風花圖 B-15
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    口試委員
  • 周明顯 - 召集委員
  • 陳瑞仁 - 委員
  • 陳康興 - 指導教授
  • 口試日期 2007-06-14 繳交日期 2007-06-29

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