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Proactive Privacy Practices in the Trend of Ubiquitous Services: An Empirical Study
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邱兆民, 蔡憲唐, 羅濟群
Chao-Min Chiu; Hsien-Tang Tsai; Chi-Chun Lo
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Proactive privacy practice, Proactive privacy governance, Electronic services, Mobile services, Ubiquitous services, Disclosure willingness, Integrative social contracts theory
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隱私是一備受矚目的策略性議題，常用以因應詭譎多變的競爭壓力，尤以電子化相關產業更為顯著。「無所不在服務」可視為是電子化服務及行動式服務的延伸，因其以電子化服務為基石，並可藉由行動式服務之應用蓬勃發展(Junglas & Watson 2006)。在無所不在服務環境中，顧客隨時隨地處於情境感知的網路環境裡，故可享有更高規格客製化及個人化的即時服務；而相對地，顧客也就更能感受到所引發的隱私威脅。因此，隱私問題被視為是「無所不在服務」發展的最大絆腳石。
當眾多研究探討影響顧客隱私決策相關因素如：信任、風險、隱私疑慮、隱私政策條款的呈現、隱私評估…等，本研究則著重於發展前瞻式隱私管理模式 (PPPM)，以做為電子化服務業者之採取前瞻式隱私實務的參考依據，藉以提升顧客自發性資訊揭露意願。PPPM 以整合社會契約理論為基礎，涵蓋科技及非科技層面之相關元素，如：行為、法規和經濟等相關層面因素，即電子化服務業者前瞻式之隱私管理機制、業者對顧客所傳達之「無所不在服務」的認知價值及競爭策略。本研究以B2C電子化服務為研究情境，運用實證調查法驗證模式中各構念關係。
Privacy is a strategic issue so that much attention has been constantly devoted to information privacy in response to competitive pressure in dynamic marketplace, particularly in the trend of e-business settings. Ubiquitous services (u-services) are recognized as the logical extension of e-/m-services because they can be initiated by e- and further propagated by m-services (Junglas & Watson 2006). In u-services context, customers are always connected seamlessly in context-awareness networks so the higher degree of customized and personalized services can be timely served. Likewise, customers may also well be aware of privacy threats behind that. Consequently, privacy issues are identified as a key hindrance for booming u-services.
While a large body of studies focusing on privacy issues have examined relevant factors influence customer decision making such as customer beliefs (i.e. trust and risk), privacy concerns, the representations of privacy statement, and even the privacy calculus, this study aims to explore a theoretical proactive privacy practice model (PPPM) as a guideline for an e-services provider (ESP) initiating its privacy practices to its customers to enhance voluntary information disclosure. Drawing upon integrative social contracts theory, the proposed PPPM embraced technical and non-technical elements such as human, legal, and economic relevant perspectives, that is, e-services providers’ proactive privacy governance, and customer perceived value and competitive strategies for u-services. An empirical survey was conducted in a B2C e-services context to examine the relationships among these constructs.
The results indicate that there are significant relationships between those three antecedents and disclosure willingness respectively. Meanwhile, the moderating effect of competitive strategies significantly and positively associates with proactive privacy governance and disclosure willingness. These findings not only broaden current knowledge of the disclosure behavior but also allow ESPs to strategically manage privacy and leverage privacy protection for a competitive advantage and identify the strengths and weaknesses of their current privacy mechanisms, guiding them to develop more proactive and prominent privacy practices for extending their businesses to future u-services or u-businesses.
目次 Table of Contents
ABSTRACT IN CHINESE i
TABLE OF CONTENTS iv
LIST OF FIGURES vii
LIST OF TABLES viii
1. INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background and Motivation 1
1.2 Research Questions 5
1.3 Research Objectives 7
1.4 Research Design 8
1.5 Organization of the Research 11
2. LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL DEVELOPMENT 12
2.1 Electronic Services and Mobile Services 12
2.2 Ubiquitous Services 15
2.2 Privacy Issues 18
2.3 Integrative Social Contracts Theory 21
2.3.1 Social contract theory and marketing 21
2.3.2 Integrative social contracts theory 22
2.4 ISCT and Proactive Privacy Governance 26
2.4.1 Proactive Provision and Protection 29
2.4.2 Proactive Education 30
2.4.3 Proactive Monitoring and Feedback Seeking 31
2.5 ISCT and Perceived Value 34
2.6 ISCT, Competitive Strategies and Moderating Effects 36
3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 40
3.1 Research Approach 40
3.2 Construct Operationalization 41
3.3 Instrument Development 43
3.4 Sampling and Survey Administration 45
3.5 Analysis Methods 46
3.5.1 Measurement Validation 47
3.5.2 Test of the Structural Model 49
4. DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS 51
4.1 Data Collection 51
4.2 Measurement Model Assessment 53
4.3 Structural Model Assessment 56
5. DISCUSSIONS AND CONCLUSIONS 60
5.1 Discussion of Results 60
5.2 Theoretical Implications 65
5.3 Managerial Implications 68
5.4 Limitations and Future Research 71
5.5 Conclusion 72
APPENDIX A. SURVEY INSTRUMENT IN CHINESE 86
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