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姓名 黃婷萱(Ting-Hsuan Huang) 電子郵件信箱 E-mail 資料不公開
畢業系所 海洋科學系研究所(Department of Oceanography)
畢業學位 博士(Ph.D.) 畢業時期 104學年第2學期
論文名稱(中) 從河川到海洋碳系統控制因子探討:以熱帶河川、中大西洋陸棚、東南台灣海峽為例
論文名稱(英) Controlling factors of carbon system from freshwater to seawater:
case studies in tropical rivers, Middle Atlantic Bight, and
SE Taiwan Strait
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    摘要(中) 地球上生物及非生物的碳,藉著物理、化學或生物作用,在碳的儲存庫之間轉換,形成碳循環。碳循環又可依照儲存庫的滯留時間分為快速和慢速循環,這兩類循環在工業革命前只有少量的交換,因人類大量的燃燒化石燃料,使得慢速循環中的碳,在短時間中,大量的轉移到快速循環,使得原本的碳通量平衡也相對應的被改變。為了減少碳循環估算中的誤差,及找到遺失的碳匯,碳收支的估算重點從全球轉向區域,以得到更精確的碳通量資料。本研究著重於提供更進一步的不同區域水文系統中碳收支資料,以及其影響因子。
       此研究主要利用南海周遭以及熱帶河川數據,討論不同碳參數的控制因子,以及估算碳通量。溶解態無機碳和土壤的鹼基飽和度及陽離子交換量為正相關,而溶解態有機碳則是和土壤有機碳含量成正相關,和土壤容積密度成反比。依照地理上的分布,高溶解態有機碳的河川多位於3°N到6°S,也是土壤有機碳含量高的區域,而溶解態無機碳則是有相對的低值。一年約有89.4±60.1 Tg的碳,由河川注入到南海,熱帶河川則是輸出0.53±0.36 Pg的碳到不同海域,另估算全球的河川溶解態有機碳通量,則是每年輸出0.197±0.099 Pg的碳到河口。
       大陸棚區域接收低鹽的河川沖淡水和高鹽的外海海水,中大西洋陸棚的主要水團為:河川沖淡水、陸棚水、陸坡水和墨西哥灣流水,本研究以水團各自不同的溫鹽特性,建立水團間理論物理混合模式。假設實驗數據只受物理混合及生物作用影響,故將實驗數據扣除物理混合模式數據後,即可得生物作用所影響的範圍及數值,即可知湧升到陸棚的陸坡水,提供營養鹽使得陸棚的溶解態無機碳固定量增加。
       開放大洋的水文相對於陸棚的穩定,然而明顯受到像聖嬰及年際變化這類大尺度的事件影響。西南台灣海峽的海水是由南海和西菲律賓海水,隨著不同季節跟事件改變這兩種水團的混合比例而得,溫鹽結果顯示台灣海峽的海水在聖嬰及反聖嬰事件後發生的七個月,會受到聖嬰及反聖嬰事件最明顯的影響,然而化學參數卻應受到生物作用影響,無法相對應反映出不同事件中的化學參數差異。
       從全球二氧化碳海氣通量以及相對應的水域面積來看,淡水系統的單位面積排放量最高,陸棚區是單位面積的吸收量最大,開放大洋則是整體吸收量最多。本研究雖未能估算各水文系統的控制因子影響整體通量的百分比,但目標為提供過去未能考量,或是未能定性的控制因子,以增進日後的區域通量估算精度。
    摘要(英) The carbon cycle is related to biotic and abiotic processes on Earth, and the dynamic equilibriums used to be approximately steady among each carbon reservoir. The balance between fast and slow carbon cycles was shifted, however, since humans started burning fossil fuels and clearing forests massively in the recent two centuries. The imbalance (emission > absorption) among known data suggests that there is a missing carbon sink. In order to narrow down the uncertainty of the carbon flux and to determine the missing carbon sink, focuses of carbon budget studies have changed from global to regional assessments. The aim of this dissertation is to improve the regional carbon budget through analyzing controlling factors in different aquatic systems.
       The first part of the dissertation is about the fluvial system. The discussion includes the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), particulate inorganic carbon (PIC), and particulate organic carbon (POC) of rivers around the South China Sea and in the tropical regions. The DIC concentration increases with the averaged base saturation and the cation exchange capacity for clay in each basin. The DOC concentration exhibits a positive correlation with the soil organic carbon content but a negative correlation with the bulk density of soil. The PIC and POC percentages of the total suspended matter decrease with increasing concentrations of total suspended matter. The river with high DOC concentration usually is relatively low in the DIC concentration, and the DOC concentrations vary depending on the geographical distribution. The rivers with high DOC concentrations are generally located between 3°N to 6°S, and the DIC concentrations of these rivers are relatively lower than those in other regions. The total riverine carbon fluxes around the South China Sea and in the tropical region are 89.4±60.1 Tg C and 0.53±0.36 Pg C per year, respectively. The global riverine DOC flux is 0.197±0.099 Pg C per year.
       The dissertation also studies the Middle Atlantic Bight. There is generally a complex hydrography on continental shelves due to mixing of riverine input and open ocean waters through tide, upwelling and other physical mechanisms. There are four main water masses (plume, shelf, slope and Gulf Stream waters) in the Middle Atlantic Bight, and this study adopts salinity and temperature of each water mass as end members to calculate physical mixing percentages of main water masses. Differences between the field data and the theoretical physical mixing data are taken to be due to biological effects. The results show that the upwelled slope water provides nutrients to the shelf area and benefits the fixing of the inorganic carbon to the organic carbon.
       The open ocean is relatively steady compared with the continental shelf. Yet, large-scale oceanic events like El Niño or other interannual changes still influence the seawater characteristics. The seawater in the Taiwan Strait originates from the South China Sea and the West Philippine Sea water masses, and the mixing ratios vary with seasons and other events. This study suggests that the seawater in the Taiwan Strait receives the most obvious influence of El Niño/La Niña events with a seven-month lag. The maximum concentrations of nutrients are significantly higher during the summer, seven months after a La Niña event (La Niña-7), than in other seasons. However, biological activities also affected these chemical parameters. In spring, active photosynthesis consumes more nutrients and hydrogen ion concentrations in La Niña-7 periods than in normal-7 periods. Therefore, the horizontal carbon flux is not only effected by the water masses percentage, but also by biological actives obviously.
       This study considers different controlling factors in induvial regional aquatic systems, and aims to improve the estimation of regional carbon budget. Future research should focus on how to synthesize and quantify these factors in regional ecosystems.
    關鍵字(中)
  • 台灣海峽
  • 南海
  • 熱帶河川
  • 碳通量
  • 中大西洋陸棚
  • 關鍵字(英)
  • Middle Atlantic Bight
  • carbon flux
  • tropical rivers
  • Taiwan Strait
  • South China Sea
  • 論文目次 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ii
    中文摘要             iii
    ABSTRACT iv
    List of Tables viii
    List of Figures ix
    Chapter 1 Introduction- carbon cycle 1
    Chapter 2 Riverine carbon fluxes around the South China Sea 7
    2.1 Introduction 7
    2.2 Study area 8
    2.3 Data and methods 9
    2.4 Results and Discussion 11
    2.5 Summary 19
    Chapter 3 Fluvial carbon fluxes in tropical rivers 36
    3.1 Introduction 36
    3.2 Data 37
    3.3 Method 38
    3.4 Conclusions 43
    Chapter 4 The DOC flux in world’s rivers 50
    4.1 Introduction 50
    4.2 Data sources and flux estimation 51
    4.3. Results 53
    4.4 Discussion 55
    4.5 Conclusions 58
    Chapter 5 The dissolved inorganic carbon system in the Middle Atlantic Bight ocean margin during late winter  66
    5.1 Introduction 66
    5.2 Methods 67
    5.3 Results 68
    5.4 Discussion 71
    5.5 Summary 76
    Chapter 6 Varying intensity of Kuroshio intrusion into Southeast Taiwan Strait during ENSO events   91
    6.1 Introduction 91
    6.2 Methods 93
    6.3 Results and Discussion  95
    6.4 Conclusions    102
    Chapter 7 Conclusions 115
    Chapter 8 References  117
    Appendix  144
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    口試委員
  • 白書禎 - 召集委員
  • 劉倬騰 - 委員
  • 曾若玄 - 委員
  • 洪佳章 - 委員
  • 王樹倫 - 委員
  • 陳鎮東 - 指導教授
  • 口試日期 2016-05-26 繳交日期 2016-08-03

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