Responsive image
博碩士論文 etd-0725111-140947 詳細資訊
Title page for etd-0725111-140947
The Pursuit of Meaningfulness of Work: The Interaction between Prosocial Motivation, Task Significance, and Perceived External Prestige
Year, semester
Number of pages
Liang-Chih Huang
Advisory Committee
Chin-Kang Jen
Date of Exam
Date of Submission
experienced meaningfulness of work, perceived external prestige, prosocial motivation, task significance
本論文已被瀏覽 5667 次,被下載 11
The thesis/dissertation has been browsed 5667 times, has been downloaded 11 times.
本篇研究提出人們所感受的工作的意義是受自我、工作、與環境三者互動的影響而改變。 人們一進入一機構工作時,可能有想造福別人的動機,但隨著工作年資增加,感受到的工作的意義可能被增強或減弱。 其它來自工作本身或工作環境的因素可能造成該變動。 針對此現象,此提出的架構呈現親社會動機 (prosocial motivation)、任務重要性 (task significance)、與企業聲望 (perceived external prestige)三者互動對個人知覺工作意義度 (experienced meaningfulness of work) 的影響。 本研究透過問卷調查於高科技產業員工以及警方人士來檢驗提出的架構。 結果驗證,當人們有親社會動機時,也會有較高知覺工作意義度。 即使人們有親社會動機,企業聲望仍會影響知覺工作意義度。 而任務重要性對於知覺工作意義度的影響強烈大於人們既有的親社會動機。 研究結果顯示任何層面的因素都會對工作意義度共同造成影響,且動機與工作意義度的關聯是互動的。
This paper introduces a dynamic model to illustrate how the self, the work, and the environment interactively influence the experience of work meaningfulness during the employment period. While individuals might enter an organization with intent to improve or protect others’ well-being, their perceived degree of work meaningfulness might be strengthened or weakened within jobs. Other factors from their work and the environment could come into play. Specifically, the proposed model presents how the interplay between prosocial motivation, perceived task significance, and perceived external prestige of an organization affect the experienced meaningfulness of work jointly. This paper tests the model by surveying employees from the high-tech sector and the police sector using the questionnaire method. The results show that individuals who have prosocial motivation indeed experience a sense of work meaningfulness initially. Even when individuals are prosocially motivated, the perceived external prestige of their organizations positively affects their experience in meaningfulness of work. Furthermore, the perceived level of task significance of one’s work overpowers the existing prosocial motivation when it comes to altering the perception of work meaningfulness. The findings indicate that factors from different dimensions could alter the experienced meaningfulness of work together, and the relation between prosocial motivation and work meaningfulness is dynamic.
目次 Table of Contents
Chinese Abstract i
English Abstract ii
Table of Contents iii
List of Tables v
List of Figures vi
Chapter 1: Introduction 1
1.1 Background 1
1.2 Research motive and objective 1
1.3 Scope 3
Chapter 2: Literature Review 5
2.1 Meaningfulness of Work 5
2.1.1. Meaning seeking in life and work 5
2.1.2. Definitions: Meaning and meaningfulness of work 5
2.1.3. Importance of meaningful work 6
2.1.4. Construction of meaning at work 7
2.1.5. Sources of the meaning of work 9
2.1.6. An interactive model for meaningfulness of work 17
2.2. Prosocial Motivation 18
2.2.1. Prosocial motivation at work 18
2.2.2. Definition: Prosocial motivation 19
2.2.3. Significance of prosocial motivation 20
2.2.4. Importance of prosocial motivation to individuals 21
2.2.5. Importance of prosocial motivation to organizations 23
2.2.6. Prosocial motivation in the present model 24
2.3. Perceived External Prestige 24
2.3.1. External prestige of an organization in a work environment 24
2.3.2. Definition: Perceived external prestige 25
2.3.3. Significance of perceived external prestige 26
2.3.4. Perceived external prestige and experienced meaningfulness of work 28
2.3.5. Perceived external prestige and prosocial motivation 29
2.3.6. Perceived external prestige in the present model 30
2.4. Perceived Task Significance 31
2.4.1. The concept of task significance in job design 31
2.4.2. Definition: Task significance 31
2.4.3. Significance of task significance 32
2.4.4. Task significance and meaningfulness of work 33
2.4.5. Task significance and prosocial motivation 34
2.4.6. Task significance in the present model 36
Chapter 3: Research Method 37
3.1. Research structure 37
3.2. Measures 38
3.2.1. Dependent variable: Experienced meaningfulness of work 39
3.2.2. Independent variable: Prosocial motivation 39
3.2.3. Mediator: Perceived external prestige 40
3.2.4. Mediator: Perceived task significance 41
3.2.5. Demographic information 42
3.2.6. Questionnaire translation and pretesting 42
3.3. Samples 43
3.4. Procedures 44
3.5. Analysis method 45
Chapter 4: Results 46
4.1. Demographic characteristics 46
4.2. Validity and reliability 48
4.3. Correlation results 51
4.3.1. Experienced meaningfulness of work 52
4.3.2. Prosocial motivation 52
4.3.3. Perceived external prestige 53
4.3.4. Perceived task significance 53
4.3.5. Other demographic variables 54
4.4. Regression analysis 56
4.4.1. Hypothesis 1 56
4.4.2. Hypothesis 2 56
4.4.3. Hypothesis 3 57
4.5. Job sector comparison: Independent samples t test 61
4.6. Job level comparison: Independent samples t test 64
Chapter 5: Discussion 67
5.1. General discussion 67
5.1.1. The dynamic model 67
5.1.2. Differences between sectors 68
5.1.3. Differences between job levels 69
5.2. Theoretical contributions 70
5.2.1. Meaning of work 70
5.2.2. Work design 71
5.2.3. Prosocial motivation 73
5.3. Practical implications 73
5.4. Limitations 76
5.5. Future directions 77
References 78
Appendix 89
Meaningfulness of work questionnaire 89
參考文獻 References
Albinger, H. S., & Freeman, S. J. (2000). Corporate Social Performance and Attractiveness as an Employer to Different Job Seeking Populations. Journal of Business Ethics, 28(3), 243-253.
Alderfer, C. P. (1969). An empirical test of a new theory of human needs. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 4(2), 142-175.
Amarjit, S. G., & Neil, M. (2007). Improving employee dedication and pro-social behavior. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 19(4), 328.
Ariely, D., Kamenica, E., & Prelec, D. (2008). Man's search for meaning: The case of Legos. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 67(3-4), 671-677.
Arnold, K. A., Turner, N., Barling, J., Kelloway, E. K., & McKee, M. C. (2007). Transformational leadership and psychological well-being: The mediating role of meaningful work. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 12(3), 193-203.
Ashforth, B. E., & Kreiner, G. E. (1999). " How Can You Do It?": Dirty Work and the Challenge of Constructing a Positive Identity. Academy of Management Review, 24(3), 413-434.
Ashforth, B. E., & Mael, F. (1989). Social Identity Theory and the Organization. Academy of Management Review, 14(1), 20-39.
Badran, M. A., & Kafafy, J. H. (2008). The effect of job redesign on job satisfaction, resilience, commitment and flexibility: The case of an Egyptian public sector bank. International Journal of Business Research, 8(3), 27-41.
Bambrick, P., & Bonder, B. (2005). Older adults' perceptions of work. Work, 24(1), 77-84.
Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator–mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173-1182.
Bartels, J., Pruyn, A., de Jong, M., & Joustra, I. (2007). Multiple organizational identification levels and the impact of perceived external prestige and communication climate. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 28(2), 173-190.
Batson, C. D. (1996). Some Disorderly Thoughts about Social Motivation. Psychological Inquiry, 7(3), 217-220.
Batson, C. D., Ahmad, N., Powell, A. A., & Stocks, E. L. (2008). Prosocial motivation. In J. Y. Shah & W. L. Gardner (Eds.), Handbook of motivation science (pp. 135-147): Guilford Press.
Baumeister, R. F., & Vohs, K. D. (2002). The pursuit of meaningfulness in life. In C. Snyder & S. López (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology (pp. 608-618). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Berg, J. M., Wrzesniewski, A., & Dutton, J. E. (2010). Perceiving and responding to challenges in job crafting at different ranks: When proactivity requires adaptivity. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 31(2/3), 158-186.
Bhattacharya, C. B., Rao, H., & Glynn, M. A. (1995). Understanding the Bond of Identification: An Investigation of Its Correlates among Art Museum Members. The Journal of Marketing, 59(4), 46-57.
Bhattacharya, C. B., Sen, S., & Korschun, D. (2008). Using Corporate Social Responsibility to Win the War for Talent. MIT Sloan Management Review, 49(2), 37.
Boston College Center for Corporate Citizenship. (2010). The 2010 Corporate Social Responsibility Index Retrieved April 9, 2011, from
Brief, A. P., Brett, J. F., Raskas, D., & Stein, E. (1997). Feeling Economically Dependent on One's Job: Its Origins and Functions With Regard to Worker Well-Being. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 27(15), 1303-1315.
Brief, A. P., Konovsky, M. A., Goodwin, R., & Link, K. (1995). Inferring the Meaning of Work From the Effects of Unemployment. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 25(8), 693-711.
Brief, A. P., & Nord, W. R. (1990). Work and nonwork connections. In A. P. Brief & W. R. Nord (Eds.), Meanings of occupational work: a collection of essays (pp. 171-199). Lexington: Lexington Books.
Bunderson, J. S., & Thompson, J. A. (2009). The Call of the Wild: Zookeepers, Callings, and the Double-edged Sword of Deeply Meaningful Work. Administrative Science Quarterly, 54(1), 32-57.
Business Software Alliance. (2009). Resilience Amid Turmoil: Benchmarking IT Industry Competitiveness 2009. Retrieved from Business Software Alliance website:
Carmeli, A. (2005). Perceived External Prestige, Affective Commitment, and Citizenship Behaviors. Organization Studies, 26(3), 443-464.
Carroll, A. B. (1999). Corporate Social Responsibility. Business & Society, 38(3), 268-295.
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Colby, A., Sippola, L., & Phelps, E. (2001). Social responsibility and paid work in contemporary American life. In A. S. Rossi (Ed.), Caring and doing for others: social responsibility in the domains of family, work, and community (pp. 463-501): University of Chicago Press.
Corporate Responsibility Magazine. (2011). Corporate Responsibility Magazine's 100 Best Corporate Citizen List Retrieved April 9, 2011, from’s-“100-best-corporate-citizens-list”
Crant, J. M. (2000). Proactive Behavior in Organizations. Journal of Management, 26(3), 435-462.
Cunningham, M. R., Steinberg, J., & Grev, R. (1980). Wanting to and having to help: Separate motivations for positive mood and guilt-induced helping. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 38(2), 181-192.
D'Abate, C. P., Youndt, M. A., & Wenzel, K. E. (2009). Making the most of an internship: An empirical study of internship satisfaction. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 8(4), 527-539.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The 'What' and 'Why' of Goal Pursuits: Human Needs and the Self-Determination of Behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11(4), 227.
Dik, B. J., & Duffy, R. D. (2009). Calling and Vocation at Work. The Counseling Psychologist, 37(3), 424-450.
Dik, B. J., Duffy, R. D., & Eldridge, B. M. (2009). Calling and vocation in career counseling: Recommendations for promoting meaningful work. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 40(6), 625-632.
Dunham, R. B., Grube, J. A., & Castañeda, M. B. (1994). Organizational commitment: The utility of an integrative definition. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79(3), 370-380.
Dutton, J. E., & Dukerich, J. M. (1991). Keeping an Eye on the Mirror: Image and Identity in Organizational Adaptation. The Academy of Management Journal, 34(3), 517-554.
Dutton, J. E., Dukerich, J. M., & Harquail, C. V. (1994). Organizational Images and Member Identification. Administrative Science Quarterly, 39(2), 239-263.
Elangovan, A. R., Pinder, C. C., & McLean, M. (2010). Callings and organizational behavior. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 76(3), 428-440.
Emmons, R. A. (1997). Motives and goals. In R. Hogan, J. Johnson & S. Briggs (Eds.), Handbook of personality psychology (pp. 485-512). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Ferris, G. R., & Gilmore, D. C. (1985). A methodological note on job complexity indexes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 70(1), 225-227.
Fombrun, C. J. (2008). Reputation: realizing value from the corporate image. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
Frankl, V. E. (1963). Man's search for meaning: an introduction to logotherapy. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.
Frese, M., & Fay, D. (2001). Personal initiative: An active performance concept for work in the 21st century. In B. M. Staw & R. I. Sutton (Eds.), Research in Organizational Behavior (Vol. 23, pp. 133-187): JAI Press.
Fried, Y., & Ferris, G. R. (1987). The Validity of the Job Characteristics Model: A Review and Meta-Analysis. Personnel Psychology, 40(2), 287.
Fuller, J. B., Hester, K., Barnett, T., Frey, L., Relyea, C., & Beu, D. (2006). Perceived external prestige and internal respect: New insights into the organizational identification process. Human Relations, 59(6), 815-846.
Gagné, M., & Deci, E. L. (2005). Self-determination theory and work motivation. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26(4), 331.
Gardner, H., Csikszentmihalyi, M., & Damon, W. (2002). Good work: when excellence and ethics meet. New York: Basic Books.
Gecas, V., & Schwalbe, M. L. (1983). Beyond the Looking-Glass Self: Social Structure and Efficacy-Based Self-Esteem. Social Psychology Quarterly, 46(2), 77-88.
Gill, F. (1999). The meaning of work: Lessons from sociology, psychology, and political theory. Journal of Socio-Economics, 28(6), 725-743.
Gloabl Views Magazine. (2011). Corporate Social Responsibility Forum Retrieved April 9, 2011, from
Grant, A. M. (2007). Relational job design and the motivation to make a prosocial difference. Academy of Management Review, 32(2), 393-417.
Grant, A. M. (2008a). Does intrinsic motivation fuel the prosocial fire? Motivational synergy in predicting persistence, performance, and productivity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(1), 48-58. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.93.1.48
Grant, A. M. (2008b). Employees without a Cause: The Motivational Effects of Prosocial Impact in Public Service. International Public Management Journal, 11(1), 48-66.
Grant, A. M. (2008c). The significance of task significance: Job performance effects, relational mechanisms, and boundary conditions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(1), 108-124. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.93.1.108
Grant, A. M., & Berg, J. M. (2010). Prosocial motivation at work: When, why, and how making a difference makes a difference. In K. Cameron & G. M. Spreitzer (Eds.), Handbook of positive organizational scholarship: Oxford University Press.
Grant, A. M., Campbell, E. M., Chen, G., Cottone, K., Lapedis, D., & Lee, K. (2007). Impact and the art of motivation maintenance: The effects of contact with beneficiaries on persistence behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 103(1), 53-67.
Grant, A. M., Dutton, J. E., & Rosso, B. D. (2008). Giving commitment: Employee support programs and the prosocial sensemaking process. Academy of Management Journal, 51(5), 898-918.
Grant, A. M., Fried, Y., & Juillerat, T. (2011). Work matters: Job design in classic and contemporary perspectives APA handbook of industrial and organizational psychology, Vol 1: Building and developing the organization. (pp. 417-453): Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association.
Grant, A. M., & Mayer, D. M. (2009). Good soldiers and good actors: Prosocial and impression management motives as interactive predictors of affiliative citizenship behaviors. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(4), 900-912.
Grant, A. M., & Parker, S. K. (2009). 7 Redesigning Work Design Theories: The Rise of Relational and Proactive Perspectives. Academy of Management Annals, 3(1), 317-375.
Grant, A. M., & Sumanth, J. J. (2009). Mission possible? The performance of prosocially motivated employees depends on manager trustworthiness. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(4), 927-944.
Grant, D., O'Neil, K. M., & Stephens, L. S. (2004). Spirituality in the workplace: new empirical directions in the study of the sacred. Sociology of Religion, 65(3), 265-283.
Green, S. B., & Salkind, N. J. (2008). Using SPSS for Windows and Macintosh: Analyzing and Understanding Data Value Package (5th ed.). Upper Saddle river, NJ: Pearson Education Inc.
Griffin, R. W. (1983). Objective and Social Sources of Information in Task Redesign: A Field Experiment. Administrative Science Quarterly, 28(2), 184-200.
Hackman, J. R., & Lawler, E. E. (1971). Employee reactions to job characteristics. Journal of Applied Psychology, 55(3), 259-286.
Hackman, J. R., & Oldham, G. R. (1976). Motivation through the design of work: test of a theory. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 16(2), 250-279.
Hackman, J. R., & Oldham, G. R. (1980). Work redesign: Addison-Wesley.
Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., J., B. B., Anderson, R. E., & Tatham, R. L. (2006). Multivariate data analysis: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Herrbach, O., & Mignonac, K. (2004). How organisational image affects employee attitudes. Human Resource Management Journal, 14(4), 76-88.
Heskett, J. L., Jones, T. O., Loveman, G. W., Sasser Jr, W. E., & Schlesinger, L. A. (1994). Putting the Service-Profit Chain to Work. Harvard Business Review, 72(2), 164-170.
Hogan, E. A., & Martell, D. A. (1987). A confirmatory structural equations analysis of the job characteristics model. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 39(2), 242-263.
Hogg, M. A. (1992). The social psychology of group cohesiveness: from attraction to social identity. New York: Harvester-Wheatsheaf.
Hogg, M. A., & Terry, D. J. (2000). Social identity and self-categorization processes in organizational contexts. Academy of Management Review, 25(1), 121-140.
Homans, G. C. (1958). Social Behavior as Exchange. The American Journal of Sociology, 63(6), 597-606.
Humphrey, S. E., Nahrgang, J. D., & Morgeson, F. P. (2007). Integrating motivational, social, and contextual work design features: A meta-analytic summary and theoretical extension of the work design literature. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(5), 1332-1356.
Iyer, V. M., Bamber, E. M., & Barefield, R. M. (1997). Identification of accounting firm alumni with their former firm: Antecedents and outcomes. Accounting, Organizations and Society, 22(3-4), 315-336.
Jahoda, M. (1982). Employment and unemployment: a social-psychological analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kanfer, R. (2009). Work Motivation: Advancing Theory and Impact. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 2(1), 118-127.
Katz, D., & Kahn, R. (1978). The social psychology of organizations: Wiley.
Latham, G. P., & Pinder, C. C. (2005). Work motivation theory and research at the dawn of the twenty-first century. Annual Review of Psychology, 56(1), 485-516.
Leana, C., Appelbaum, E., & Shevchuk, I. (2009). Work process and quality of care in early childhood education: The role of job crafting. Academy of Management Journal, 52(6), 1169-1192.
Leary, M. R., & Baumeister, R. F. (2000). The nature and function of self-esteem: Sociometer theory. In P. Z. Mark (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (Vol. Volume 32, pp. 1-62): Academic Press.
Leiter, M. P., Harvie, P., & Frizzell, C. (1998). The correspondence of patient satisfaction and nurse burnout. Social Science & Medicine, 47(10), 1611-1617.
Lips-Wiersma, M. (2002). The influence of spirital "meaning-making" on career behavior. The Journal of Management Development, 21(7/8), 497.
Locke, E. A., & Taylor, M. S. (1990). Stress, coping, and the meaning of work. In A. P. Brief & W. R. Nord (Eds.), Meanings of occupational work: a collection of essays (pp. 135-170). Lexington: Lexington Books.
Loher, B. T., Noe, R. A., Moeller, N. L., & Fitzgerald, M. P. (1985). A meta-analysis of the relation of job characteristics to job satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology, 70(2), 280-289.
Mael, F., & Ashforth, B. E. (1992). Alumni and their alma mater: A partial test of the reformulated model of organizational identification. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 13(2), 103-123.
Marx, G. T. (1980). The New Police Undercover Work. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 8(4), 399-446.
Maslow, A. H. (1971). The farther reaches of human nature. New York: The Viking Press.
Maslow, A. H. (1999). Toward a psychology of being: J. Wiley & Sons.
May, D., R. , Gilson, R., L. , & Harter, L., M. . (2004). The psychological conditions of meaningfulness, safety and availability and the engagement of the human spirit at work. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 77, 11.
Mitroff, I. I., & Denton, E. A. (1999). A Study of Spirituality in the Workplace. (cover story). Sloan Management Review, 40(4), 83-92.
Money, K., Hillenbrand, C., & da Camara, N. (2009). Putting positive psychology to work in organisations. Journal of General Management, 34(3), 21-36.
Morgeson, F. P., & Humphrey, S. E. (2006). The Work Design Questionnaire (WDQ): developing and validating a comprehensive measure for assessing job design and the nature of work. The Journal Of Applied Psychology, 91(6), 1321-1339.
Morrison, E. E., Burke, I. I. I. G. C., & Greene, L. (2007). Meaning in motivation: Does your organization need an inner life? Journal of Health & Human Services Administration, 30(1), 98-115.
Morse, N. C., & Weiss, R. S. (1955). The Function and Meaning of Work and the Job. American Sociological Review, 20(2), 191-198.
Mottaz, C. J. (1988). Determinants of Organizational Commitment. Human Relations, 41(6), 467-482.
National Statistics. (2006). Report of Census Results. Retrieved from National Statistics, R.O.C. (Taiwan) website:
Nord, W. R., Brief, A. P., Atieh, J. M., & Doherty, E. M. (1990). Studying meanings of work: The case of work values. In A. P. Brief & W. R. Nord (Eds.), Meanings of occupational work: a collection of essays (pp. 21-64). Lexington: Lexington Books.
Pajo, K., & Lee, L. (2010). Corporate-Sponsored Volunteering: A Work Design Perspective. Journal of Business Ethics, 99(3), 467-482.
Parker, S., & Wall, T. D. (1998). Job and work design: organizing work to promote well-being and effectiveness: Sage Publications.
Piccolo, R. F., & Colquitt, J. A. (2006). Transformational leadership and job behaviors: The mediating role of core job characteristics. Academy of Management Journal, 49(2), 327-340.
Pratt, M. G., & Ashforth, B. E. (2003). Fostering meaningfulness in working and at work. In K. Cameron, J. Dutton & R. Quinn (Eds.), Positive organizational scholarship: foundations of a new discipline (pp. 309-327). SanFrancisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc.
Riordan, C. M., Gatewood, R. D., & Bill, J. B. (1997). Corporate Image: Employee Reactions and Implications for Managing Corporate Social Performance. Journal of Business Ethics, 16(4), 401-412.
Rondinelli, D. A., & Berry, M. A. (2000). Environmental citizenship in multinational corporations: social responsibility and sustainable development. European Management Journal, 18(1), 70-84.
Rosso, B. D., Dekas, K. H., & Wrzesniewski, A. (2010). On the meaning of work: A theoretical integration and review. Research in Organizational Behavior, 30, 91-127.
Saavedra, R., & Kwun, S. K. (2000). Affective states in job characteristics theory. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21(2), 131.
Salancik, G. R., & Pfeffer, J. (1978). A Social Information Processing Approach to Job Attitudes and Task Design. Administrative Science Quarterly, 23(2), 224-253.
Schnell, T., & Becker, P. (2006). Personality and meaning in life. Personality and Individual Differences, 41(1), 117-129.
Schuman, M. (2005). Taiwan Steps Up. Retrieved from Time website:,9171,1077201,00.html
Scroggins, W. (2008). The Relationship Between Employee Fit Perceptions, Job Performance, and Retention: Implications of Perceived Fit. Employee Responsibilities & Rights Journal, 20(1), 57-71.
Shamir, B. (1991). Meaning, Self and Motivation in Organizations. Organization Studies (Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co. KG.), 12(3), 405.
Smidts, A., Pruyn, A. T. H., & Riel, C. B. M. v. (2001). The Impact of Employee Communication and Perceived External Prestige on Organizational Identification. The Academy of Management Journal, 44(5), 1051-1062.
Smircich, L., & Morgan, G. (1982). Leadership: The Management of Meaning. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 18(3), NP-273.
Snider, J., Hill, R. P., & Martin, D. (2003). Corporate Social Responsibility in the 21st Century: A View from the World's Most Successful Firms. Journal of Business Ethics, 48(2), 175-187.
Snir, R., & Harpaz, I. (2002). Work-leisure relations: Leisure orientation and the meaning of work. Journal of Leisure Research, 34(2), 178-203.
Snyder, M. (1983). The influence of individuals on situations: Implications for understanding the links between personality and social behavior. Journal of Personality, 51(3), 497-516.
Spreitzer, G. M., Kizilos, M. A., & Nason, S. W. (1997). A Dimensional Analysis of the Relationship Between Psychological Empowerment and Effectiveness, Satisfaction, and Strain. Journal of Management, 23(5), 679.
Steger, M. F., & Dik, B. J. (2009). If One is Looking for Meaning in Life, Does it Help to Find Meaning in Work? Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, 1(3), 303-320.
Stumpp, T., Hülsheger, U. R., Muck, P. M., & Maier, G. W. (2009). Expanding the link between core self-evaluations and affective job attitudes. European Journal of Work & Organizational Psychology, 18(2), 148-166.
Tajfel, H. (1981). Human groups and social categories: studies in social psychology: Cambridge University Press.
Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. C. (1985). The Social Identity Theory of Intergroup Behavior. In W. G. Austin & S. Worchel (Eds.), Psychology of intergroup relations. Chicago, IL: Nelson-Hall.
Thaler, R. H., & Sunstein, C. R. (2009). Nudge: improving decisions about health, wealth, and happiness: Penguin.
Thomas, J., & Griffin, R. (1983). The Social Information Processing Model of Task Design: A Review of the Literature. Academy of Management Review, 8(4), 672-682.
Thomas, K. W., & Velthouse, B. A. (1990). Cognitive Elements of Empowerment: An "Interpretive" Model of Intrinsic Task Motivation. Academy of Management Review, 15(4), 666-681.
Thompson, J. A., & Bunderson, J. S. (2001). Work-Nonwork Conflict and the Phenomenology of Time. Work and Occupations, 28(1), 17-39.
Thompson, J. A., & Bunderson, J. S. (2003). Violations of principle: Ideological currency in the psychological contract. Academy of Management Review, 28(4), 571-586.
Turban, D. B., & Greening, D. W. (1997). Corporate social performance and organizational attractiveness to prospective employees. Academy of Management Journal, 40(3), 658-672.
Turner, J. C. (1988). Rediscovering the social group: a self-categorization theory. New York: Blackwell.
Turner, R. H. (1978). The Role and the Person. The American Journal of Sociology, 84(1), 1-23.
Ulrich, D., & Ulrich, W. (2010). The Why of Work: How Great Leaders Build Abundant Organizations That Win: McGraw-Hill.
Vallacher, R. R., & Wegner, D. M. (1985). A theory of action identification. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Vallacher, R. R., & Wegner, D. M. (1987). What do people think they're doing? Action identification and human behavior. Psychological Review, 94(1), 3-15.
Vallerand, R. J. (1997). Toward A Hierarchical Model of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation. In P. Z. Mark (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (Vol. 29, pp. 271-360): Academic Press.
Van den Broeck, A., Vansteenkiste, M., De Witte, H., & Lens, W. (2008). Explaining the relationships between job characteristics, burnout, and engagement: the role of basic psychological need satisfaction. Work & Stress, 22(3), 277-294.
van Liemt, G. (2007). Recent developments on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in Information and Communications Technology (ICT) Hardware Manufacturing. Retrieved from International Labour Organization website:
Warburton, J., & McLaughlin, D. (2006). Doing it from your heart: the role of older women as informal volunteers. Journal Of Women & Aging, 18(2), 55-72.
Warr, P., Jackson, P., & Banks, M. (1988). Unemployment and Mental Health: Some British Studies. Journal of Social Issues, 44(4), 47-68.
Weiss, J. W., Skelley, M. F., Haughey, J. C., & Hall, D. T. (2004). Calling, new careers and spirituality: A reflective perspective for organizational leaders and professionals. In M. L. Pava & P. Primeaux (Eds.), Spiritual intelligence at work: meaning, metaphor, and morals (pp. 175-201). Amsterdam: Elsevier, Ltd.
Wrzesniewski, A. (2003). Finding positive meaning in work. In K. Cameron, J. Dutton & R. Quinn (Eds.), Positive organizational scholarship: foundations of a new discipline (pp. 296-308). San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.
Wrzesniewski, A., & Dutton, J. E. (2001). Crafting a job: Revisioning employees as active crafters of their work. Academy of Management Review, 26(2), 179-201.
Wrzesniewski, A., Dutton, J. E., & Debebe, G. (2003). Interpersonal sensemaking and the meaning of work. Research in Organizational Behavior, 25, 93-135.
Zalesny, M. D., & Ford, J. K. (1990). Extending the social information processing perspective: New links to attitudes, behaviors, and perceptions. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 47(2), 205-246.
Zikmund, W. G. (2003). Business Research Methods (7th ed.): Thomson/South-Western College.
電子全文 Fulltext
論文使用權限 Thesis access permission:校內一年後公開,校外永不公開 campus withheld
開放時間 Available:
校內 Campus:開放下載的時間 available 2012-07-25
校外 Off-campus:永不公開 not available

您的 IP(校外) 位址是
論文開放下載的時間是 校外不公開

Your IP address is
This thesis will be available to you on Indicate off-campus access is not available.

QR Code