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博碩士論文 etd-0728104-023408 詳細資訊
Title page for etd-0728104-023408
論文名稱
Title
「並聯型新產品開發模式」:台灣自行車產業的研發經驗
Parallel Connecting New Product Development Process:The Case Study of Bicycle Industry in Taiwan
系所名稱
Department
畢業學年期
Year, semester
語文別
Language
學位類別
Degree
頁數
Number of pages
268
研究生
Author
指導教授
Advisor
召集委員
Convenor
口試委員
Advisory Committee
口試日期
Date of Exam
2004-06-16
繳交日期
Date of Submission
2004-07-28
關鍵字
Keywords
質性研究、模組化設計、中小企業、新產品開發、自行車、紮根理論
modularity, bicycle, new product development, small and medium sized enterprises, grounded theory, qualitative research
統計
Statistics
本論文已被瀏覽 5826 次,被下載 6598
The thesis/dissertation has been browsed 5826 times, has been downloaded 6598 times.
中文摘要
傳統上,新產品開發過程研究,大多是以大型企業內部的新產品開發活動為觀察基礎,有時並未特別注意到最終產品是由眾多零件組合而成的問題。而且,新產品開發活動的執行往往涉及許多不確定性,容易產生高額的契約協商成本,因此由交易成本理論觀之,公司內部科層往往就被視為比較有利於新產品開發活動的協調機制。
但是,如果我們以台灣自行車產業為實際觀察對象,卻可發現這個產業的零件研發與製造竟是由眾多專業中小企業提供,而且整車的研發與製造也是由眾多專業中小企業負責。
本文嘗試從產業組織結構的觀點,探索台灣自行車產業新產品開發過程中的組織互動模式。運用深度的個案訪談,以及紮根理論的資料分析方式,本研究發現,自行車產業零件開發整合的組織互動模式不是傳統新產品開發過程研究「以焦點公司內部行為作為核心的分析方式」所隱含的「系統製造廠商應該或可以主導零件廠服務其顧客」的「串聯型」互動關係。而是由成車廠、零件廠直接跟OEM買家同步接觸,共同協助OEM買家開發新自行車的一種「並聯型新產品開發模式」。
跟傳統新產品開發過程研究隱含的「系統製造商應該主導零件廠來服務其顧客」的「串聯型」互動關係相較,台灣成車廠、零件廠、OEM買家三者同步接觸所形成的「並聯型」互動結構,在面對自行車產業快速多樣的研發挑戰時,不論在創意演化、零件實體開發、成車組裝、以及產品上市後修正等階段都有獨特的地方。
除了討論「並聯型新產品開發模式」的運作過程與競爭優勢之外,本研究也發現台灣自行車產業的經營環境特性有三:一、以OEM為主要國際貿易型態;二、零件具有國際介面標準;三、產品具有流行性商品化的趨勢。同時,本研究也以台灣自行車業者在國際介面標準的基礎上,透過OEM國際貿易型態經營新產品開發活動的策略行為作為切入點,指出自行車產業會形成此種新產品開發模式的因素可區分為三類:一、需求面的因素:OEM買家的「分化式」指定採購;二、供給面的因素:台灣業者的模組式協力發展行動;三、在地有利條件:1.促進交易效率的產業資訊透明度、2.滿足OEM買家一次購足的完備產業結構、3.縮短台灣業者反應距離的產業聚群、4.提供台灣業者彈性應變的協力網路關係、5.政府對台灣業者的研發協助。
經由「並聯型新產品開發模式」的組織互動過程描述、組織互動模式的競爭優勢與形成原因的探索,本研究則是在1. 傳統新產品開發過程研究的應用限制;2.不同產品創新型態對台灣中小企業發展的影響;3.國際介面標準對台灣中小企業組織結構的影響;4.模組化設計趨勢下台灣中小企業的研發管理重點等四個議題上,討論台灣中小企業的研發管理問題。
本研究強調,「並聯型新產品開發模式」有別於傳統新產品開發過程研究隱含的「系統製造商應該主導零件廠來服務其顧客」的「串聯型」互動關係。而且,台灣出口成車的新產品開發活動會產生競爭優勢的原因,也非模組化設計主流學者所強調的:企業應該應該強化產品基礎結構層次的學習,運用產品基礎結構的模組化設計,取得策略彈性的競爭優勢。而是因為自行車產業的中小成車廠與零件廠,在產業的國際介面標準基礎上產生模組式專業發展,而且也持續維持彼此的協力合作關係,共同滿足OEM買家快速多樣的研發需求,才有今天的成就。
Abstract
This is a case study of Taiwan’s bicycle industry. With the view of international standards we tried to explore the integration of the new product development process in Taiwan’s bicycle industry.
We have found that Taiwan’s assemblers and components suppliers are parallel connected to interact with foreign buyers simultaneously. And all the R&D services to which every member offered are finally integrated under the instructions of the foreign buyers. We describe such a cooperation mode as ‘Parallel Connecting New Product Development Process’.
We argue that this new kind of cooperation mode is better than the traditional sequential staging model that is represented as ‘vertical connecting’ cooperation mode in innovation flexibility and speed because of the communication efficiency and convenience to the OEM buyers.
In this thesis we will describe the new product development interactions among the foreign buyers, components suppliers and the assemblers. And we will also discuss the competitive advantages and the causes of such a new cooperation mode. With this kind of cooperation mode we also discuss the R&D management implications for the small and medium sized enterprises in Taiwan. We argue that this new kind of cooperation mode can bring a new management implication to the small and medium sized enterprises in Taiwan, which is different from the main argument in the literature of strategic flexibility.
目次 Table of Contents
目錄

謝詞-------------------------------------------------- 一
中文摘要---------------------------------------------- 二
英文摘要---------------------------------------------- 四
目 錄------------------------------------------------ 五
表目錄------------------------------------------------ 七
圖目錄------------------------------------------------ 九

第一章 緒論------------------------------------------ 1
第一節 研究背景------------------------------------ 1
第二節 研究問題------------------------------------ 4

第二章 文獻探討-------------------------------------- 5
第一節 新產品開發過程研究的回顧-------------------- 6
第二節 三種新產品開發方式,一種組織分工意涵-------- 17
第三節 組織型態與新產品開發方式的配合:交易成本觀點 27

第三章、研究方法-------------------------------------- 37
第一節 研究策略------------------------------------ 37
第二節 個案的抽樣原則------------------------------ 37
第三節 資料收集過程-------------------------------- 39
第四節 資料分析過程-------------------------------- 41
第五節 「並聯型新產品開發模式」的架構體系簡述------ 46
第六節 研究範圍與限制------------------------------ 50

第四章 台灣自行車產業的過去與現在-------------------- 54
第一節 全球自行車產業的國際介面標準發展歷程-------- 55
第二節 台灣自行車產業的發展歷程-------------------- 63
第三節 台灣自行車產業的發展現況-------------------- 69
第四節 台灣自行車產業的發展特性-------------------- 73

第五章 「並聯型新產品開發模式」與競爭優勢------------ 80
第一節 新產品開發的挑戰:全球自行車產業的流行商品化 81
第二節 「並聯型新產品開發模式」的運作過程---------- 85
第三節 「並聯型新產品開發模式」的競爭優勢---------- 107
第四節 小結---------------------------------------- 114

第六章 「並聯型新產品開發模式」的形成機制------------ 116
第一節 OEM買家的「分化式」採購--------------------- 117
第二節 台灣業者的模組式協力共生行動---------------- 134
第三節 台灣在地的有利條件-------------------------- 166

第七章 「並聯型新產品開發模式」的相關議題------------ 184
第一節 「並聯型新產品開發模式」的未來-------------- 184
第二節 「並聯型新產品開發模式」對台灣中小企業的管理意涵-------------------------------------------------------- 194
第三節 「並聯型新產品開發模式」會發生在別的產業嗎? 222

第八章 結論與建議------------------------------------ 232
第一節 研究結果簡述-------------------------------- 233
第二節 研究意涵------------------------------------ 242

參考文獻---------------------------------------------- 249
附錄---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 263
附錄一、台灣及日本自行車成車出口量、出口值、出口單價統計表----- 263
附錄二、訪問稿謄寫實錄-------------------------------------------------------------- 264
附錄三、台灣自行車零件自給率換算表------------------------------------------- 265
附錄四、台灣自行車工業中衛體系------------------------------------------------ 266
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