論文使用權限 Thesis access permission：校內校外均不公開 not available
校內 Campus：永不公開 not available
校外 Off-campus：永不公開 not available
The determinants of alliance performance: an integrative framework
Number of pages
王喻平, 張宮熊, 黃賀, 余明助, 蔡武德
Christina Yu-Ping Wang; Alex Kung-Hsiung Chang; H. Jason Huang; Min-chu Yu; Wu-der Tsay
Date of Exam
Date of Submission
alliance success, TMT's joint commitment, relational capability, normative integration, alliance learning mechanism
本論文已被瀏覽 5644 次，被下載 0 次
The thesis/dissertation has been browsed 5644 times, has been downloaded 0 times.
Though the traditional resource-based view emphasized on the function of alliance to obtain the valuable resources, it still can’t explain the complex alliance integrations completely. Using transaction cost theory to decrease opportunism can not help to build integration mechanisms of alliance. This study employs knowledge-based view to study how to use knowledge integration mechanisms to establish the internal valuable, rare and imperfectly imitable resources for alliance.These internal advantages can help the organization to acquire partner’s critical resources.
Based on knowledge based theory, this study, integrating alliance learning perspective and social integration perspective, built an integrative framework in addition to a sample set of 158 cases to explain how to enable alliance to reach its success. Additionally, by means of structural equation model (SEM), we test this
From the alliance learning perspective, this study not only considers the IT system, but also argues the importance of alliance learning mechanism and learning empowerment integration. First, the relational capability provides the foundations of the learning capability in alliance. Through the relational capability, the company can directly carry out the operational integration and promote the learning mechanism and empowerment, all which form the social integration mechanism s that facilitate to increase the alliance performance.
From the social integration perspective, TMT’s joint commitment is a collective action to bring forth active connection, such as relational capability, social integration mechanism and normative integration. Relational capability that is positively influenced by TMT’s commitment is the valuable resources within alliance networks.
Relational capability benefits the social integration mechanism and promotes the
normative integration, that both of them will enhance good alliance performance.
目次 Table of Contents
LIST OF TABLES 6
LIST OF FIGURES 8
1.1 Research Background 9
1.2 Research Questions 13
ΙΙ. LITERATURE REVIEW 15
2.1 Alliance and Alliance Performance 15
2.2 Organizational capital perspective of alliance 19
2.3 Social capital perspective of alliance 20
2.4 Top Management Team’s commitment 21
2.5 Human capital management 23
2.6 Boundary Spanner Team’s Capabilities 28
2.7 Operational Integration 32
2.8 Knowledge exploration mechanism 37
2.9 Organizational Cultural Integration 43
ΙΙΙ. METHODOLOGY 48
3.1 Theoretical Framework 48
3.2 Hypotheses 50
3.3 Instrument and Measurement 50
3.4 Sampling 55
3.5 Data Analysis 55
ΙV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 60
4.1 Descriptive Statistics 60
4.2 The Compare Means of Company Characteristics 63
4.3 Factor Analysis of Influence Factors of the Alliance 66
4.4 Correlation Analysis of Alliance variables 73
4.5 Organizational Capital Perspective Model 75
4.6 Social Capital Perspective Model 81
4.7 Integrative Model 87
V. CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION 95
5.1 Conclusions 95
5.2 Managerial Implications 98
5.3 Theory Implications and Limitations 98
APPENDIX 1– QUESTIONNAIRE (English Version) 116
APPENDIX 2– QUESTIONNAIRE (Chinese Version) 122
Adams, J. S. 1980. Interorganizational processes and organization boundary activities. In B. W. Staw, and L. L. Cummings (Eds.), Research in organizational behavior ( pp. 321– 355). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
Adler, P. S. 1995. Interdepartmental interdependence and coordination: The case of the design/manufacturing interface. Organization Science, 6: 147–167.
Adler, P. S., and Kwon, S. W. 2000. Social capital: The good, the bad, and the ugly. In E. L. Lesser (Ed.). Knowledge and social capital: Foundations and applications. 89-115. Boston: Butterworth- Heinemann.
Adler, P. S., and Kwon, S.W. 2002. Social capital: Prospect for a new concept. Academy of Management Review, 27: 17–40.
Allen, J. 1998. Capital markets and corporate structure: the equity carve-outs of Thermo Electron. Journal of Financial Economics 48(1): 99–124.
Almeida, P. and Phene, A. 2004. "Subsidiaries and Knowledge Creation: The Influence of the MNC and Host Country on Innovation." Strategic Management Journal 25, Special Issues (8-9): 847-864.
Almeida, P., and Kogut, B. 1999. Localization of knowledge and the mobility of engineers in regional networks. Management Science, 45: 905–917.
Anand, B.N., and Khanna, T. 2000. Do firms learn to create value? The case of alliances. Strategic Management Journal, Special Issue 21(3): 295–315.
Ancona, D. and Caldwell, D. 1992. Demography and design: predictors of new product team performance. Organization Science. 3(3):321–341.
Ancona, D. G. 1990. Outward bound: Strategies for team survival in an organization. Academy of Management Journal, 33: 334–365.
Ancona, D. G. 1993. The classics and the contemporary: A new blend of small group theory. In J. K. Murnighan (Ed.), Social psychology in organizations: Advances in theory and research: 225–243. New York: Prentice-Hall.
Ancona, D. G., and Caldwell, D. F. 1992. Bridging the boundary: External activity and performance in organizational teams. Administrative Science Quarterly, 37: 634–665.
Anderson, J. C., and Gerbing, G. W. 1988. Structural equation modeling in practice: A review and recommended two-step approach. Psychology Bulletin, 103(3): 411-423.
Andersson, L. M., and Bateman, T. S. 1997. Cynicism in the workplace: Some causes and effects. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 18, 449–469.
Angeli, L., Jones, J. and Sabir, B. 1998. Factors affecting a senior management culture change for total quality metamorphosis. Managing Service Quality. 8(3): 198–211
Angle, H. and Perry, J. 1981. An empirical assessment of organizational commitment and organizational effectiveness. Administrative Science Quarterly: 26:1-14.
Aral, S., and Weill, P. 2007. IT assets, organizational capabilities, and firm performance: how resource allocations and organizational differences explain performance variation. Organization Science. 18: 763-780.
Argote, L., and Ingram, P. 2000. Knowledge transfer: A basis for competitive advantage in firms. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 82: 150–169.
Argote, L., Beckman, S. L., and Epple, D. 1990. The persistence and transfer of learning in industrial settings. Management Science, 36: 140–154.
Aulakh, P. S., and Gencturk, E. F. 2000. International principal–agent relationships—control, governance and performance. Industrial Marketing Management, 29, 521–538.
Badaracco, J. L., 1991. The Knowledge Link: How Firms Compete Through Strategic Alliances, Harvard Business School Press, Boston, MA.
Bae, J. and Gargiulo, M. 2004. Partner substitutability, alliance network structure, and firm profitability in the telecommunications industry. Academy of Management Journal. 47(6): 843–859.
Bahrami, H. 1992. The emerging flexible organization: Perspectives from Silicon Valley. California Management Review, 34(4), 33–52
Baker W, 2000. Achieving Success through Social Capital: Tapping the Hidden Resources in Your Personal and Business Networks. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Balakrishnan, S., and Koza, M.P. 1993. Information asymmetry, adverse selection and joint-ventures. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization. 20(1): 99–117.
Baldwin, C. and Forsyth, J. 1992. Thermo Electron Corporation. Harvard Business School Case 9-292-104.
Bardett, C. A. and S. Choshal. 1992. Transnational Management. Homewood, IL: Irwin.
Barney, J. B. 1986. Typei s of competition and the theory of strategy: Toward an integrative framework. Academy of Management Review, 11: 791–800.
Barney, J. B. 1991. Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Journal of Management, 17: 99–120.
Baron, R. M., and Kenny, D. A. 1986. The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: conceptual, strategic and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51: 1173-1182.
Bass, B.M., 1990. Bass and Stogdill's Handbook of Leadership. The Free Press, New York.
Baum, J. A. C., and Ingram, P. 1998. Survival-enhancing learning in the Manhattan hotel industry, 1898–1980. Management Science, 44: 996–1016.
Baum, J. A. C., Calabrese, T., and Silverman, B. S. 2000. Don’t go it alone: Alliance network composition and startups’ performance in Canadian biotechnology. Strategic Management Journal, 21: 267–294.
Baum, J., and Oliver, C. 1991. Institutional linkages and organizational mortality. Administrative Science Quarterly, 36: 187–218.
Beard, M. J., and Zuniga, L. C. 2006. Achieving the Right Flavor: A Study of Designing a Cultural Integration Process. THE PSYCHOLOGIST-MANAGER JOURNAL. 9(1): 13–25.
Becker, G. S. and Murphy, K. M. 2000. Social Economics: Market Behaviour in a Social Environment. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
Becker, B.E, Huselid, M.E. and Ulrich, D. 2001. The HR Scorecard: Linking People, Strategy and Performance, Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.
Becker, O.S., 1964, Human Capital. Document Type: Book Citation.
Beer, M., Eisenstat, R.A., Spector, B., 1990. The Critical Path to Corporate Renewal. Harvard Business School Press, Boston.
Belderbos, R. 2003. Entry mode, organizational learning, and RandD in foreign affiliates : evidence from Japanese firms. Strategic Management Journal. 24: 235-259.
Berg, S.V., Duncan, J., and Friedman, P. 1982. Joint Venture Strategies and Corporate Innovation. Oelgeschlager, Gunn and Hain: Cambridge, MA.
Bidault, F. and Cummings, T. 1996. Los beneficios ocultos de las alianzas. Expansion, Nuevas ideas del managemet 19, 2—3.
Blake, R. R. and Mouton, J. S., 1964. The Managerial Grid. Houston, TX: Gulf.
Blau, P. M. 1969. The dynamics of bureaucracy: A study of interpersonal relations in two government agencies (2nd ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Bleeke, J. and Ernst, D. 1991. ‘The way to win in cross-border alliances’, Harvard Business Review, 69(6), pp. 127–135.
Boland, R. J., Tenkasi, R. V., and Te’eni, D. 1994. Designing Information Technology to Support Distributed Cognition. Organization Science 5(3): 456-475.
Bollen, K. A. 1989. Structural equations with latent variables. Wiley: New York.
Bourdieu, P. 1986 .The forms of capital. In JG Richardson(ed), Handbook of theory and Research for the Sociology of Education. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Bowen, D. E., and Ostroff, C. 2004. Understanding HRM–firm performance linkages: the role of the “strength” of the HRM system. Academy of Management Review.29(2): 203–221.
Boxall, P. 1996. The strategic HRM debate and the resource based view of the firm. Human Resource Management Journal, 6: 59–75.
Brass, D. J. 1984. Being in the right place: A structural analysis of individual influence in an organization. Administrative Science Quarterly, 29: 518–539.
Brooking, A. 1996. Intellectual Capital, London: International Thomson Business Press.
Brown, L. T., Rugman, A. M., and Verbeke, A. 1989. Japanese joint ventures with western multinationals: Synthesizing the economic and cultural explanations of failure. Asia Pacific Journal of Management. 6: 225-242.
Brown, S., and Eisenhardt, K. 1995. Product development: Past research, present findings, and future directions. Academy of Management Review, 20: 343-378.
Browne, MW, and Cudeck, R. 1993. Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In Testing structural equation models, Bollen KA, Long JS (Eds.). Sage: Newbury, CA: 136-162.
Buckley, P. J. and Casson, M. C. 1996. An economic model of international joint venture development, Journal of International Business Studies 27(5): 849–876
Burgelman, R. 1991. Intraorganizational ecology of strategy making and organizational adaptation: Theory and field research. Organization Science, 2: 239-262.
Burns, T., and Stalker, G. M., 1961. The Management of Innovation. London: Tavistock.
Burt, R. S. 1992. Structural holes: The social structure of competition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Burt, R. S. 2000. The network structure of social capital. Research in Organizational Behavior, 22: 345–423.
Burt, R.S. and Knez, M. 1996. Trust and Third-party Gossip. In R.M. Kramer and T.R. Tyler (eds.), Trust in Organizations: Frontiers of Theory and Research, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 68-89.
Byrne, D. and Clore, G. L. 1970. A reinforcement-affect model of evaluative response. Personality: An International Journal Journal. 1: 103-128.
Cegarra-Navarro, J. G. 2005. An empirical investigation of organizational learning through strategic alliances between SMEs. Journal of Strategic Marketing 13: 3-16.
Child, J. 1972. Organizational structure, environment and performance: The role of strategic choice. Sociology, 6, 1–22
Child, J. 1997. Strategic choice in the analysis of action, structure, organizations and environment: Retrospect and prospect. Organization Studies, 18(1), 43–76
Chitkara, K. K. 1998. Construction project management: Planning, scheduling and controlling, McGraw-Hill, New Delhi.
Christina L. Stamper, C. L., and Johlke, M. C., 2003. The Impact of Perceived Organizational Support on the Relationship Between Boundary Spanner Role Stress and Work Outcomes. Journal of Management. 29(4): 569–588
Chung, S., Singh, H., and Lee, K. 2000. Complementarity, status similarity and social capital as drivers of alliance formation. Strategic Management Journal, 21: 1–22.
Chwalowski, M. 1997. Intellectual capital matters. The Electricity Journal. 10(10): 88-93
CIC .2003. Modelo Intellectus: Medicio′n y Gestio′n del Capital Intelectual, Centro de Investigacio′n sobre la Sociedad del Conocimiento (CIC), Madrid.
Clark, K., and Fujimoto, T. 1991. Product development performance: Strategy, organization and management in the world auto industry. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
Clark, K., Chew, B. and Fujimoto, T., 1987. “Product development in the world auto industry,” Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, 3: 729–771.
Cohen, D. and Prusak, L. 2001. In Good Company: How Social Capital Makes Organizations Work. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
Cohen, W. D., and Levinthal, D. A. 1990. Absorptive capacity: A new perspective on learning and innovation. Administrative Science Quarterly, 35: 128–152.
Coleman J. S. 1988. Social capital in the creation of human capital. American Journal of Sociology, 94(Supplement): S95–S120.
Coleman, J. S. 1990. Foundations of social theory. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Coleman, JS. 1990. Foundations of Social Theory. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Contractor, F. J., and Lorange, P. 1988. Why should firms cooperate? The strategy and economics basis
Cullen, J. B., Johnson, J. L., and Sakano, T. 1995. Japanese and Local Partner Commitment to IJVs: Psychological Consequences of Outcomes and Investments in the IJV Relationship. Journal of International Business Studies, 26(1): 91-115.
Damanpour, F. 1991. Organizational innovation: A metaanalysis of effects of determinants and moderators. Academy of Management Journal. 34: 555-590.
Darshi de Saram, D., and Ahmed, S. M. 2001.Construction coordination activities: what is important and what consumes time. Journal of Management in Engineering. 17(4): 202-213.
Das, T.K. and Teng, B. S. 1998. Resource and risk management in the strategic alliance making process. Journal of Management. 24 (1): 21-42.
Das, T.K. and Teng, B. S. 2003. Partner analysis and alliance performance. Scandinavian journal of management. 19:279–308.
Davidsson, P., aand Honig, B. 2003. The role of social and human capital among nascent entrepreneurs. Journal of Business Venturing, 18(3), 301-331
Dawson, R. 2000. Developing Knowledge-based Client Relationships: The Future of Professional Services, Boston, MA: Butterworth/Heinemann.
Dierickx, I., and Cool, K. 1989. Asset stock accumulation and sustainability of competitive advantage. Management Science. 35: 1504-1511.
Doz, Y. L. 1996. The evolution of cooperation in strategic alliances: Initial conditions or learning processes? StrategicManagement Journal, 17(Summer Special Issue): 55–84.
Dutton, J. M., and Thomas, A. 1984. Treating progress functions as a managerial opportunity. Academy of Management Review 9: 235–247
Dyer, J. H. and Singh, H. 1998. The relational view: cooperative strategy and sources of interorganizational competitive advantage. Academy of Management Review 23(4): 660–679.
Dyer, J. H., and Nobeoka, K. 2000. Creating and Managing a High-Performance Knowledge-Sharing Network: The Toyota Case. Strategic Management Journal. 21(3): Special Issue: Strategic Netwok: 345-367.
Dyer, J.H., Kale, P., and Singh, H., 2001. How to make strategic alliances work. Sloan Management Review 42, 37– 43.
Dzinkowski, R. 2000. The measurement and management of intellectual capital: An Introduction. Management Accounting: Magazine for Chartered Management Accountants, 78(2):32-35
Earley, P. C. 2003. Redefining interactions across cultures and organizations: Moving forward with cultural intelligence. Research in Organizational Behavior, 24: 271–299.
Earley, P. C., and Mosakowski, E. 2004. Cultural Intelligence. Harvard Business Review. 82(10):139-146.
Earley, P. C., and Peterson, R. S. 2004. The Elusive Cultural Chameleon: Cultural Intelligence as a New Approach to Intercultural Training for the Global Manager. Academy of Management Learning and Education. 3(1):100–115.
Ebers, M. 1999. The dynamics of inter-organizational relationships. Research in the Sociology of Organizations, 16: 31–56
Feldman, S.P. 1989. The broken wheel: The inseparability of autonomy and control in innovation within organizations. Journal of Management Studies, 26(2), 83–102
Ferris, G. R., Hochwarter, W. A., Buckley, M. R., Harrell-Cook, G., and Frink, D. D. 1999. Human resource management: Some new directions. Journal of Management, 25: 385–415.
Forsberg, K., Mooz, H., and Cotterman, H. 1996. Visualizing project management, Wiley, New York.
Freel, M. 2000. External linkages and product innovation in small manufacturing firms. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development. 12: 245-266.
Fryxell, G.E. 1990. Managing the culture of innovation: The synthesis of multiple dialectics. In Organizational Issues in High Technology Management, ed. L.R. Gomez- Mejia and M.W. Lawless. Greenwich. CT.: JAI Press
Garelli, S. 2007. The competitiveness roadmap: 2007 – 2050. IMD WORLD COMPETITIVENESS YEARBOOK. 2007
Geletkanycz, M. A., and Hambrick, D. C. 1997. The external ties of top executives: Implications for strategic choice and performance. Administrative Science Quarterly, 42: 654–681.
Geringer, J.M. and L. Herbert. 1989. Control and Performance of International Joint Ventures. Journal of International Business Studies, 20, 235-254.
Gerwin, D. 2004. Coordinating new product development in strategic alliances. Academy of Management Review. 29(2): 241–257.
Ghoshal, S., and Moran, P. 1996. Bad for practice: A critique of the transaction cost theory. Academy of Management Review, 21: 13–47.
Gimeno, J. 2004. Competition within and between networks: the contingent effect of competitive embeddedness on alliance formation. Academy of Management Journal. 47(6): 820–842.
Gimeno, J., Folta, T. B., Cooper, A. C., and Woo, C. Y. 1997. Survival of the fittest? Entrepreneurial human capital and the persistence of underperforming firms. Administrative Science Quarterly,. 42:750-783.
Gladstein, D. 1984. Groups in context: A model of task group effectiveness. Administrative Science Quarterly, 29: 499–517.
Godfrey, P. C. and Hill, C. 1995. The problem of unobservables in strategic management research. Strategic Management Journal, 16(7):519–533.
Grand, S., von Krogh, G., Leonard, D. and Swap, W. 2004. Resource Allocation Beyond Firm Boundaries: A Multi-level Model for Open Source Innovation, Long Range Planning. 37(6): 591-610
Granovetter, M. 1985. Economic Action and Social Structure: The Problem of Embeddedness, American Journal of Sociology. 91: 481-510.
Grant, R. M. and Baden-Fuller, C. 1995. A Knowledge-based Theory of Inter-Firm Collaboration. Academy of Management Best Paper Proceedings: 38: 17-21.
Grant, R.M. 1996. Toward a knowledge-based theory of the firm. Strategic Management Journal, Winter Special Issue 17: 109–122.
Griffin, A. 1997. The effect of project and process characteristics on product development cycle time. Journal of Marketing Research, 34: 24–35.
Grootaert, C. 1997. Social Capital. House Welfare, and Poverty in Indonesia. Washington, DC: The World Bank.
Gruenfeld, D. H., Matorana, P. V., and Fan, E. T. 2000. What do groups learn from their worldiest members? Direct and indirect influence in dynamic teams. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 82: 45–59.
Guest, D., 1996. Leadership and management. In: Warr, P. (Ed.), Psychology at Work, 4th Edition. Penguin Books, London, pp. 254-278.
Gulati, R. 1995a. Does familiarity breed trust? The implications of repeated ties for contractual choice in alliances, Academy of Management Journal 38(1): 85–112
Gulati, R. 1995b. Social structure and alliance formation patterns: A longitudinal analysis. Administrative Science Quarterly, 40: 619–652.
Gulati, R. 1998. Alliances and networks. Strategic Management Journal, 19: 293–317.
Gulati, R., and Singh, H. 1998. The architecture of cooperation: Managing coordination costs and appropriation concerns in strategic alliances. Administrative Science Quarterly, 43: 781–814.
Gulati, R., Nohria, N., and Zaheer, A. 2000. Strategic networks. Strategic Management Journal, 21(Special Issue): 203– 215.
Gupta, A. K., and Govindarajan, V. 2000. Knowledge flows within multinational corporations. Strategic Management Journal, 21: 473–496.
Hagedoorn, J. 1993. Understanding the rationale of strategic technology partnering: interorganizational modes of cooperation and sectoral differences. Strategic Management Journal. 14(5): 371–385.
Hair, J., Anderson, R., Tatham, R., and Black, W. 1998. Multivariate Data Analysis. Prentice-Hall: Upper Saddle River, NJ.
Hambrick, D. C., and Mason, P. A. 1984. Upper echelons: the organization as a reflection of its top managers. Academy of Management Review. 9: 193-206.
Hamel, G. 1991. Competition for competence and interpartner learning within international strategic alliances. Strategic Management Journal, 12(Summer Special Issue): 83–103.
Hamel, G., Doz, Y. L. and Prahalad, C. K. 1989. Collaborate with your competitors and win. Harvard Business Review. 67(1): 133-139.
Hansen, M. T. 1999. The search-transfer problem: The role of weak ties in sharing knowledge across organizational subunits. Administrative Science Quarterly, 37: 422–447.
Hansen, M. T. 2002. Knowledge networks: Explaining effective knowledge sharing in multiunit companies. Organization Science, 13: 232–248.
Hansen, M. T., Nohria, N., and Tierney, T. 1999. What's Your Strategy for Managing Knowledge?. Harvard Business Review, 77(2):106-16.
Hargadon, A., and Sutton, R. I. 1997. Technology brokering and innovation in a product development firm. Administrative Science Quarterly, 42: 716-749.
Harrigan, K. R. 1986. Managing for Joint venture success. New York: Lexington Books.
Hedlund, G. 1981. Autonomy of subsidiaries and formalization of headquarters-subsidiary relationships in Swedish MNCs'. In L. Otterbeck (ed.), The Management of Headquarters-Subsidiary Relationships in Multinational Corporations. Gower Publishing, Hampshire, U.K., pp. 5-78.
Heide JB, Miner AS. 1992. The shadow of the future: effects of anticipated interaction and frequency of contact on buyer–seller cooperation. Academy of Management Journal 35(2): 265–291.
Henderson, R., and Cockburn, I. 1994. Measuring competence? Exploring firm effects in pharmaceutical research. Strategic Management Journal, 15: 63–84.
Hennart, J. 1988. A transaction cost theory of equity joint ventures. Strategic Management Journal, 9: 361–374.
Higgin, G., and Jessop, N. 1965. Communications in the building industry: The report of a pilot study, Tavistock Publications, London.
Hill, C. W. L., and Rothaermel, F. T. 2003. The performance of incumbent firms in the face of radical technological innovation. Academy of Management Review, 28: 257-274.
Hofstede, G. 1967. The Game of Budget Control. London: Tavistock.
Hofstede, G. 1980. Culture's Consequences. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Hoyle, R. H., and Smith, G. T. 1994. Formulating clinical research hypotheses as structural equation models: a conceptual overview. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62(3): 429–440.
Imai, K., Ikujiro, N., and Takeuchi, H., 1985. Managing the new product development process: how Japanese companies learn and unlearn. In: Hayes, Clark, Lorenz eds., The Uneasy Alliance. Harvard Business School Press, Boston, 337–375.
Ingelgård, A., and Norrgren, F. 2001. Effects of change strategy and top-management involvement on quality of working life and economic results. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics. 27(2): 93-105.
Inkpen, A. C. 1995. The management of International Joint ventures an Organizational learning Perspective, London: Routledge.
Inkpen, A. C. 1998. Learning, Knowledge acquisition, and strategic alliances. European Management Journal. 16(2): 223-229.
Inkpen, A. C. and Dinur, A. 1998. Knowledge management processes and international joint ventures. Organizational Science. 9(2):454–468.
Inkpen, A. C. and Tsang, E. W. 2005. Social capital, networks, and knowledge transfer. Academy of Management Review. 30(1): 146–165.
Inkpen, A. C., and Beamish, P. W. 1997. Knowledge, bargaining power, and the instability of international joint ventures. Academy of Management Review, 22: 177–202.
Insch, G. S. and Steensma, H. K., 2006. The Relationship between Firm Strategic Profile and Alliance Partners' Characteristics. JOURNAL OF MANAGERIAL ISSUES. Vol. XVIII Number 321-339
Itami, H. and T.W. Roehl. 1987. Mobilizing Invisible Trusts, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Jablin, F. M., Putnam, L. L., Roberts, K. H. and Porter, L. W. editors. 1987. Handbook of Organizational Communication. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Jansen, J. J. P., Frans, A. J. Van Den Bosch, F. A. J., and Volberda, H. W. 2005. Managing potential and realized absorptive capacity: how do organizational antecedents matter? Academy of Management Journal. 48( 6): 999–1015.
Jarvenpaa, S. L., and Ives, B. 1994. The Global Network Organization of the Future: Information Management Opportunities and Challenges. Journal of Management Information Systems. 645-665.
Johnson, J. P., Lenartowicz, T. and Apud, A. 2006. Cross-cultural competence in international business: toward a definition and a model. Journal of International Business Studies. 37: 525-543.
Johnson, R. A., Hoskisson, R. E., and Hitt, M. A. 1993. Board of Director Involvement in Restructuring: The Effects of Board Versus Managerial Controls and Characteristics. Strategic Management Journal. 14(Summer, Special Issue). 33-50.
Johnson, W. A., 2002. Assessing organizational knowledge creation theory in collaborative RandD projects. International Journal of Innovation Management. 6(4):387–418
Joskow, P. 1985. Contract duration and relationship- specific investments: empirical evidence from coal markets. American Economic Review, 77: 168-185.
Judge, W. Q., Fryxell, G. E. and Dooley, R. S. 1997. The new task of RandD management: Creating goal-directed communities for innovation. California Management Review, 39(3), 72–85
Kale, P. and Singh, H. 1999. ‘Building alliance capabilities: A knowledge-based approach’, Academy of Management Best Paper Proceedings, Chicago, IL.
Kale, P. and Singh, H. 2007. Building firm capabilities through learning: the role of the alliance learning process in alliance capability and firm-level alliance success. Strategic Management Journal. 28: 981–1000
Kale, P., Dyer, J. H., and Singh, H. 2002. Alliance capability, stock market response, and long-term alliance success: the role of the alliance function. Strategic Management Journal. 23: 747–767.
Kanungo, R. N. and Jaeger, A. M., 1990. "Introduction: The Need for Indigenous Management in Developing Countries". In Jaeger. A.M. and Kanungo, R.N. (eds) Managetment in Developing Countries. London: Roulledge.
Khanna, T., Gulati, R., and Nohria, N. 1998. The dynamics of learning alliances: competition, cooperation, and relative scope. Strategy Management Journal. 19(3):193–210.
Kiessling, T. S., and Richey, R. G. 2005. International acquisitions from a network perspective and market based competencies. Journal of Business Strategies. 22(1): 1-20
Kim, S. W. 2006. The effect of supply chain integration on the alignment between corporate competitive capability and supply chain operational capability. International Journal of Operations and Production Management. 26(10): 1084 - 1107
Kodama, M. 2005.Knowledge Creation through Networked Strategic Communities- Case Studies on New Product Development in Japanese Companies. Long Range Planning. 38:27-49
Kodama, M. 2002. Strategic Partnership with Innovative Customers: A Japanese Case Study. Information Systems Management 19: 31-52.
Kogut, B. 1988. Joint ventures: Theoretical and empirical perspectives. Strategic Management Journal, 9: 319–332.
Kogut, B., 2000.The network as knowledge: generative rules and the emergence of structure. Strategic Management Journal. 21: 405–425.
Kogut, B., and Zander, U. 1992. Knowledge of the firm, combination capabilities, and the replication of technology. Organization Science, 3: 383-397.
Kogut, B., and Zander, U. 1996. What firms do? Coordination, identity and learning. Organization Science, 7: 502-518.
Kostova, T. 1999. Transnational transfer of strategic organizational practices: A contextual perspective. Academy of Management Review, 24: 306–324.
Krishnan, R., Martin, X.and Noorderhaven, N. G. 2006. When does trust matter to alliance performance? Academy of Management Journal. 49(5): 894–917
Kumar, S., and Seth, A. 1998. The design of coordination and control mechanisms for managing joint venture- parent relationships. Strategic Management Journal. 19: 579-599.
Kuran, T. 1988. The tenacious past: theoreies if personal and collective conservatism. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization. 10. 143-171.
Kusari, S. Cohen, D., Singh, J., and Marinova, D. 2005. Trust and control mechanisms in organizational boundary spanners’ cognitions and behaviors. Academy of Management Best Conference Paper. MOC: D1-D6
Lado, A.A. and Wilson M.C. 1994. Human Resource Systems and Sustained Competitive Advantage: A Competency-Based Perspective. Academy of Management Review. 19(4): 699-727.
Lane, H. W. and Beamish, P. W. 1991. Cross-cultural cooperative behavior in joint ventures in LDCs, Management
Lane, P. J., and Lubatkin, M. 1998. Relative absorptive capacity and interorganizational learning. Strategic Management Journal, 19: 461–477.
Lank, E. 1997. Building Structural Capital: A new key to generating business value. Knowledge and Process management. 4(2): 73-79.
Larson, A. 1992. Network dyads in entrepreneurial settings: A study of the governance of exchange relations. Administrative Science Quarterly, 37: 76–104.
Lawrence, P. R., and Lorsch, J. W. 1967. Organization and environment. Boston: Harvard University Graduate School of Business Administration.
Lawrence, T. B., Phillips, N. and Hardy, N., 1999. Watching Whale-watching: A Relational Theory of organizational Collaboration, Journal of Applied Behavioral Science 35: 479-502.
Leonard, D. and Sensiper, S. 1998. The role of tacit knowledge in group innovation. California Management Review. 40: 112.
Leonard-Barton, D. 1995. Wellsprings of Knowledge: Building and Sustaining the Sources of Innovation, Harvard Business School Press, Boston, MA.
Levinthal, D. A., and Fichman, M. 1988. Dynamics of interorganizational attachments: Auditor-client relationships. Administrative Science Quarterly, 33: 345–369.
Levitt, B., March, J.G., 1988. Organizational learning. Annual Review of Sociology 14, 319– 340.
Li, J. and Guisinger, S. 1994. Comparative business failures of foreign-controlled firms in the U, Journal of International Business Studies 22(2): 209–224
Lieberman, M. B., 1989. The learning curve, technological barriers to entry and competitive survival in the chemical processing industries. Strategic Management Journal (5): 431–447.
Lin, N, 2001. Social Capital: A Theory of Social Structure and Action. Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press.
Lin, KJ. & Wang, ML. 2005. The classification of human capital according to the strategic goals of firms: an analysis. International Journal of Management. 22(1): 62-70
Luthans, F., and Youssef, C. M. 2004. Human, social, and now positive pstchological capital management: investing in people for competitive advantage. 33(2): 143-160.
Makadok, R. and Walker, G. 2000. Identifying a distinctive competence: Forecasting ability in the money fund industry. Strategic Journal of Management, 21(8): 853-864.
Makhija, M. V., and Ganesh, U. 1997. The relationship between control and partner learning in learning-related joint ventures. Organization Science, 8: 508–527.
Malhotra, A., Gosain, S., and El Sawy, O.A. 2005. Absorptive capacity configurations in supply chains: gearing for partner enabled market knowledge creation. MIS Quarterly. 29( 1): 145-187
Mansfield, E. (1988 orig. pub. date 1995). “The speed and cost of industrial innovation in Japan and the United States: External vs. internal technology,” Innovation, Technology and the Economy: Selected Essays of Edwin Mansfield, Vol. 1. Elgar: Brookfield, VT.
March, J. G., 1991. Exploartion and exploitation in organizational learning. Organization Science. 2(1): 71-87.
McEvily, B. and Marcus, A. 2005. Embedded ties and the acquisition of competitive capabilities. Strategic Management Journal: 26: 1033–1055
McEvily, B., and Zaheer, A. 1999. Bridging ties: A source of firm heterogeneity in competitive capabilities. Strategic Management Journal, 20: 1133–1156.
Meso, P. and Smith, R. 2000. A resource-based view of organizational knowledge management systems. Journal of Knowledge Management. 4: 224–234.
Miles, R. E. and Snow, C. G. 1978. Organizational Strategy, Structure and Process. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.
Miles, R. E., and Snow, C. C. 1994. Fit, failure and the hall of fame. New York: Free Press.
Milliken, F. J., and Martins, L. L. 1996. Searching for common threads: Understanding the multiple effects of diversity in organizational groups. Academy of Management Review, 21: 402–433.
Mincer, J., 1974, Schooling, Experience and Earnings, Document Type: Book Citation
Mintzberg, H. 1983. Structure in fives: Designing effective organizations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Mjoen, H., and Tallman, S. 1997. Control and performance in international joint ventures. Organization Science, 8, 257–274.
Mohr, J., and Spekman, R. 1994. Characteristics of Partnership Success: Partnership Attributes, Communication Behavior, and Conflict Resolution Techniques Strategic Management Journal. 15(2): 135-152.
Moorman, C., Deshpande, R. and Zaltman, G. 1993. Factors affecting trust in marketing research relationships. Journal of Marketing Research, 57(January): 81-101.
Moorman, C., Miner, A.S., 1998. The convergence of planning and execution: improvisation in new product development. Journal of Marketing. 6: 21–20.
Morris, J., and Sherman, J. D. 1981. Generalizability of an organizational commitment model. Academy of Management Journal, 245 12-26.
Mowday, R. T., Porter, L. W., and Steers, R. 1982. employee-organization linkages: The psychology of commitment, absenteeism, and turnovel: New York: Academic Press.
Mowery, D., Oxley, J., and Silverman, B. 1996. Strategic alliances and interfirm knowledge transfer. Strategic Management Journal, 17: 77–91.
Mulaik, S. A. 1993. Objectivity and Multivariate Statistics. Multivariate Behavior Research, 28(2), 171-203.
Mulaik, S. A., and James, L. R. 1995. Objectivity and reasoning in science and structural equation model: Concepts, issues, and applications. Hoyle RH (Eds.). Sage: Thousand Oaks, CA: 118-137.
Nachum, L. and Keeble, D. 2003. Neo-Marshallian Clusters and Global Networks: The Linkages of Media Firms in Central London. Long Range Planning. 36(5): 459-480.
Nahapiet, J., and Ghoshal, S., 1998. Social capital, intellectual capital, and the organizational advantage. Academy of management Review. 23(2): 242-266.
Narus, J. and Anderson, J. 1977. Distributor contributions to partnerships with manufacturers. Business Horizons. 30: 34-42.
Nelson, R. and Winter, S. 1982. An Evolutionary Theory of Economic Change. MA: Harvard University Press.
Nevis, E. C., DiBella, A. J. and Gould, J. M. 1995. Understanding organizations as learning systems. Sloan Management Review 36(2): 73-85.
Nicholson, N. (Ed.), 1995. The Blackwell Encyclopedic Dictionary of Organizational Behavior. Blackwell Publishers Ltd., Oxford
Nohria, N., and Garcia-Pont, C. 1991. Global strategic linkages and industry structure. Strategic Management Journal, 12: 105–124.
Nonaka, I. and Konno, N. 1998. The Concept of ‘Ba’: Building a Foundation for Knowledge Creation. California Management Review. 40(3): 40-54.
Nonaka, I. and Takeuchi, H. 1995. The Knowledge-creating Company: How Japanese Companies Create the Dynamics of Innovation. New York: Oxford University Press
Nooteboom, B. 1999. The dynamic efficiency of networks. In A. Grandori (ed.) Interfirm Networks. Organization and Industrial Competitiveness. pp. 91-119. London: Routledge.
O’Dell, C.S., Grayson, C.J. and Essaides, N., 1998, If Only We Knew What We Know: The Transfer of Internal Knowledge and Best Practice, Free Press, New York, NY.
Oh, H., Labianca, G., and Chung, MH. 2006. A multilevel model of group social capital. Academy of Management Review. 31(3): 569–582.
Oliver, C., 1991. Strategic responses to institutional processes. Academy of Management Review, 16(1), 145–179
Osborn, R.N. and Hagedoorn, J., 1997. The institutionalization and evolutionary dynamics of interorganizational alliances and networks. Academy of Management Journal, 40(2), 261–278
Osterloh, M., and Frey, B. S. 2000. Motivation, knowledge transfer, and organizational forms. Organization Science, 11: 538–550.
Ouchi, W. G. 1980. Markets, Bureaucracies, and Clans. Administrative Science Quarterly, 25: 129-142.
Oum, T. H., and Yu, C. 1998. Winning airlines: Productivity and cost competitiveness of the world’s major airlines. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Pang, N. S. K. 1996. Schoolvalues and teachers’ feelings: a LISREL model. Journal of Educational Administration. 34(2): 64-83.
Park, N. K., Mezias, J. M., and Song, J.2004.A Resource-based View of Strategic Alliances and Firm Value in the Electronic Marketplace. Journal of Management.30(1):7–27.
Park, S. H., and Russo, M. V. 1996. When competition eclipses cooperation: An event history analysis of joint venture failure. Management Science, 42, 875–890.
Park, S. H., and Ungson, G. R. 1997. Reexamining National Culture, Organizational Complementarity, and Economic Motivation on Joint Venture Dissolution. Academy of Management Journal, 40 (2): 279-307.
Park, S. O., and Zhou, D. 2005, Firm heterogeneity and competitive dynamics in alliance formation. Academy of Management Review. 30(3): 531–554.
Parkhe, A. 1991. Interfirm diversity, organizational learning and longevity in global strategic alliances, Journal of International Business Studies 22(4): 579– 601.
Pennings, J. M., and Lee, K., 1998. Social capital of organizations: Level of analysis, conceptualization and performance implications. In S. Gabbay and R. Leenders (Eds.), Corporate social capital. New York: Addison-Wesley.
Pennings, J. M., Lee, K., & Van Witteloostuijn, A. 1998. Human capital, social capital, and firm dissolution. Academy of Management Journal. 41(4): 425-440.
Perry-Smith, J. E., and Shalley, C. E. 2003. The social side of creativity: A static and dynamic social network perspective. Academy of Management Review. 28(1): 89-106.
Perteaf, MA. 1993. The cornerstones of competitive advantage: a resource-based view. Strategic Management Journal, 14(3): 179-191.
Peters, T. J., and Waterman, R. H. 1982. In Search of Excellence: Lessons from America's Best Run Companies. New York: Harper and Row.
Pfeffer, J. and Salancik, G. R. 1978. The External Control of Organizations: A Resource Dependence Perspective. Harper and Row, New York.
Podolny, J. M. 2001. Networks as the pipes and prisms of the market. American Journal of Sociology, 107: 33-60.
Podolny, J. M., and Page, K. L. 1998. Network forms of organization. Annual Review of Sociology, 24: 57–76.
Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, JY., and Podsakoff, N. P. 2003. Common Method Biases in Behavioral Research: A Critical Review of the Literature and Recommended Remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology. 88(5): 879–903.
Poole, M. S. 1985. Communication and Organizational Climates: Review, Critique, and a New Perspective. In R.D. McPhee and P.K. Tompkins, editors, Organizational Communication: Traditional Themes and New Directions (pp. 79-108). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Porter, L., Steers, R., Mowday, R. and Boulian, P., 1974. 'Organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and turnover among psychiatric technicians', Journal of Applied Psychology, 59, pp. 603-609.
Pothukuchi, V., Damanpour, F., Choi, J., Chen, C. C., Park, S. H. 2002. National and Organizational Culture Differences and International Joint Venture Performance. Journal of International Business Studies. 33(2): 243-265.
Powell, W. W. 1987. ‘Hybrid organizational arrangements: New form or transitional development’, California Management Review, 30, pp. 67–87.
Powell, W. W. 1990. Neither markets nor hierarchy: Network forms of organization. Research in Organizational Behavior, 12: 295–336.
Powell, W. W., Koput, K. W. and Smith-Doerr, L. 1996. 'Interorganizational collaboration and the locus of innovation: Networks of learning in biotech-nology', Administerative Science Quarterly, 41, pp. 116-145.
Prahalad, C. K., and Hamel, G. 1990. The core competence of the corporation. Harvard Business Review, 68(3): 79–91.
Price, J. L., Mueller, C.W., 1986. Handbook of Organizational Measurement. Pitman Publishing, Marshfield, MA.
Probst, G. J.B., and Büchel, B. S. T., 1997. Organizational Learning: The Competitive advantage of the future. London: Prentice-Hall.
Pugh, D. S., and Hickson, D. J. 1989. Writer on Organizations. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Puranam, P., Singh, H., and Zollo, M. 2006. Organizing for innovation: managing the coordination-autonomy dilemma in technology acquisitions. Academy of Management Journal. 49(2): 263–280.
Putnam, L. L., and Poole, M. S. 1987. Conflict and Negotiation. In F.M. Jablin, L.L. Putnarn, K.H. Roberts, and L.W. Porter, editors, Handbook of Organizational Communication (pp. 549-599). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Reichers, A. E. 1985. A review and reconceptualization of organizational commitment. Academy of Management Review, 10: 3:465-76.
Reilly III, C. A. O’ and Pfeffer, J. 2000. Hidden Value: How Great Companies Achieve Extraordinary Results with Ordinary People, Harvard Business School, Boston, MA.
Reuer, J. J., Zollo, M., and Singh, H. 2002. Post-formation dynamics in strategic alliances. Strategic Management Journal, 23: 135–151.
Ring, P. S. 1997. Transacting in the state of union: A case study of exchange governed by convergent interests. Journal of Management Studies, 34: 1–25.
Ring, P. S., and Van de Ven, A. H. 1994. Developmental processes of cooperative interorganizational relationships. Academy of Management Review, 19: 90–118.
Roos, J., Roos, G., Dragonetti, N., Edvinsson, L. 1997. Intellectual Capital, Macmillan Business, New York, NY..
Rothaermel, F.T. and Deeds, D.L. 2006. Alliance type, alliance experience, and alliance management capability in high-technology ventures. Journal of Business Venturing, 21 (4): 429-460.
Schuler, R. S., and Jackson, S. E. 1987. Linking competitive strategies and human resource management practices. Academy of Management Executive, 1(3): 207–219.
Seibert, S. E., Kraimer, M. L., and Liden, R. C. 2001. A social capital theory of career success. Academy of Management Journal, 44: 219–237.
Shalley, C.E. (1995) Effects of coaction, expected evaluation, and goal setting on creativity and productivity. Academy of Management Journal, 38(2), 483–503
Sherif, K. and Xing, B. 2006. Adaptive processes for knowledge creation in complex systems: The case of a global IT consulting firm. Information and Management 43:530–540
Silverman, B., and Baum, J. 2002. Alliance-based competitive dynamics. Academy of Management Journal, 45: 791–806.
Simchi-Levi, D., Kaminsky, P., Simchi-Levi, E., 2003, Designing and Managing Supply Chain: Concepts, Strategies, and Case Studies, 2nd ed., Irwin/McGraw-Hill, New York, NY,
Skinner, S. J., Donnelly, J. H., Jr. and Ivancevich, J. M. 1987. Effects of transactional form on environmental linkages and power-dependence relations. Academy of Management Journal. 30: 577-588.
Smith, K. G., Collins, C. J., Clark, K. D. 2005. Existing knowledge, knowledge creation capability, and the rate of new product introduction in high-technology firms. Academy of Management Journal. 2005, 48(2): 346–357.
Snell, S. A., and Dean, J. W. 1992. Integrated manufacturing and human resources management: A human capital perspective. Academy of Management Journal, 35: 467-504.
Snell, S.A. 1992. Control Theory in Strategic Human Resource Management: The Mediating Effect of Administrative Information. Academy of Management Journal. 35(2): 292-327.
Sobrero, M., and Roberts, E. B. 2001. The trade-off between efficiency and learning in interorganizational relationships for product development. Management Science, 47: 493–511.
Söderlund, J. and Bredin, K. 2006. HRM in project-intensive firms: changes and challenges. Human Resource Management, 45(2): 249–265.
Soh, PH., Mahmood, I. P., and Mitchell, W. 2004. Dynamic inducements in RandD investment: market signals and network locations. Academy of Management Journal 47(6): 907–917.
Stevens, G., 1990, Successful supply chain management. Management Decision. 28(8): 25-30.
Stewart, T. A. 1997. Intellectual Capital: The New Wealth of Organizations. New York: Bantam Doubleday Dell Publishing Group, Inc.
Stewart, T.A. 1997. Intellectual Capital: The New Wealth of Organizations, Bantam Doubleday Dell Publishing Group, New York, NY.
Stigler, G., 1951. “The division of labor is limited by the extent of the market,” Journal of Political Economy, June, 185–193.
Stiles, J. 1994. "Strategic Alliances: Making Them Work." Long Range Planning 27 (4): 133-137.
Tallman, S., Jenkins, M., Henry, N. and Pinch, S. 2004. KNowledge, clusters, and competitive advantage. Academy of Management Review. 29(2): 258-271
Tatikonda, M.V. and Rosenthal, S.R., 2000. Successful execution of product development projects: Balancing firmness and flexibility in the innovation process. Journal of Operations Management, 18(4), 401–425
Teece, D. J., Pisano, G. and Shuen, A. 1997. Dynamic capabilities and strategic management, Strategic Management Journal, 18(7): 509-533.
Thamhain, H.J., 1990. Managing technologically innovative team efforts toward new product success. Journal of Product Innovation Management 7, 5–18.
Thompson, J. D. 1967. Organizations in action. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Tiemessen, L., Lane, H. W., Crossan, M. and Inkpen, A. C. 1997. Knowledge management in international joint ventures. In P. W. Beamish and J. P. Killing (eds) Cooperative Strategies. North American Perspectives, pp. 370-399, San Francisco, CA: The New Lexington Press.
Todorova, G. and Durisin, B. 2007. Absorptive capacity: valuing a reconceptualization. Academy of Management Review. 32(3): 774–786.
Toffler, A., 1990. Power Shift: Knowledge, Wealth and Violence at the Edge of the 21st Century, Bantam Books, New York, NY.
Tracy, M., 2004. A holistic approach to new product development: new insights. Journal of Supply Chain Management. 40(4): 37-55.
Trice, Harrison M. and Janice M. Beyer. 1993. The Cultures of Work Organizations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Tsai, KH., and Wang, JC. 2008. External technology acquisition and firm performance: A longitudinal study. Journal of Business Venturing. 23: 91–112
Tsai, W. 2001. Knowledge transfer in intraorganizational networks: Effects of network position and absorptive capacity on business unit innovation and performance. Academy of Management Journal, 44: 996–1004.
Tushman, M. L. 1977. Special boundary roles in the innovation process. Administrative Science Quarterly, 22: 587– 605
Un, C. A. and Cuervo-Cazurraw, A. 2004. Strategies for Knowledge Creation in Firms, British Journal of Management, 15: S27–S41
Uzzi, B. 1997. Social structure and competition in interfirm networks: the paradox of embeddedness. Administrative Science Quarterly 42: 35–67.
Van de Ven, A.H., Ferry, D.L., 1980. Measuring and Assessing Organizations. Wiley-Interscience, New York.
Von Krogh, G., Nonaka, I., and Aben, M. 2001. Making the most of your company's knowledge: a strategic framework. Long Range Plan, 34(4):421–439.
Wang, L., and Zajac, E. J. 2007. Alliance or acquisition? a dyadic perspective on interfirm resource combinations. Strategic Management Journal. 28: 1291–1317.
Weedman, J., 1992. Informal and formal channels in boundary spanning communication. Journal of the American Society for Information Service, 43(3), 257-267.
White, S. and Liu, S. Y. 2005. Distinguishing costs of cooperation and control in alliances. Strategic Management Journal. 26: 913–932.
Whu, M. H., and Schulze, A. 2005. How to Support Knowledge Creation in New Product Development: An Investigation of Knowledge Management Methods. European Management Journal. 23(3): 263–273
Williamson, O. E. 1985. The economics institutions of capitalism. Free Press, New York.
Wright, P. M., and Snell, S. A. 1991. Toward an integrative view of strategic human resource management. Human Resource Management Review, 1: 203–225.
Wright, P. M., McMahan, G. C., and McWilliams, A. 1994. Human resources and sustained competitive advantage: A resource-based perspective. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 5: 301–326.
Wright, P.M. and Snell, S.A. 1991. Toward an Integrative View of Strategic Human Resource Management. Human Resource Management Review, 1: 203-225.
Yan, A. 1998. Structural stability and reconfiguration of international joint ventures. Journal of International Business Studies, 29: 773–796.
Yli-Renko, H., Autio, E., and Sapienza, H. J. 2001. Social capital, knowledge acquisition, and knowledge exploitation in young technology-based firms. Strategic Management Journal, 22: 587–613.
Zahra, S. A., and George, G. 2002. Absorptive capacity: A review, reconceptualization, and extension. Academy of Management Review, 27: 185–203.
Zahra, S. A., and Nielsen, A. P. 2002. Sources of capabilities, integration and technology commercialization. Strategic Management Journal, 23: 377–398.
Zahra, S. A., Ireland, R. D., and Hitt, M. A. 2000. International expansion by new venture firms: International diversity, mode of market entry, technological learning, and performance. Academy of Management Journal, 43: 925–950.
Zhang, Q., Lim, J., and Cao, M. 2004. Innovation-driven learning in newproduct development: a conceptual model. Ind Manage Data Syst. 104(3):252–261.
Zhou, J. 1998. Feedback valence, feedback style, task autonomy, and achievement orientation: Interactive effects on creative performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83(2): 261–276.
論文使用權限 Thesis access permission：校內校外均不公開 not available
校內 Campus：永不公開 not available
校外 Off-campus：永不公開 not available
您的 IP(校外) 位址是 188.8.131.52
Your IP address is 184.108.40.206
This thesis will be available to you on Indicate off-campus access is not available.