論文使用權限 Thesis access permission：校內校外均不公開 not available
校內 Campus：永不公開 not available
校外 Off-campus：永不公開 not available
Theories and Empirical Examination of MNC Subsidiary’s CSR
Number of pages
黃賀, 余明助, 高明瑞, 張宮熊, 王喻平
Huang, H. Jason; Yu, Ming-Chu; Kao, Ming-Rea; Chang, Kung-Hsiung; Wang, Christina Yu-Ping
Date of Exam
Date of Submission
Corporate Social Culture, International CSR Coordination, Sustainability-based HRM, Stakeholder Relational Capital, Corporate Sustainable Capabilities
本論文已被瀏覽 5667 次，被下載 0 次
The thesis/dissertation has been browsed 5667 times, has been downloaded 0 times.
The increased attention to multinational companies’ (MNC) sustainability in both academic and practitioner realms has raised an important question of why more and more firms behave in a socially responsible manner, especially in today’s global economy. Drawing upon RBV and institutional theory incorporating theoretical insights from international business and stakeholder or CSR-related theories, this research was conducted in an attempt to offer a systematic analysis on antecedents and consequences of MNC subsidiaries’ sustainability conducts. Combining the results of preliminary qualitative and empirical quantitative studies, this research identified the internal factors within MNC and external institutional factors outside of MNC that influence subsidiary’ resources and capabilities developments for sustainable developments, and that in turn collectively contribute to MNC’s sustainability in modern complex, dynamic global economy. With the sample of 114 MNCs’ subsidiaries, this research used SEM (structural equation modeling) technique to test an integrated framework addressing how the diverse stakeholder demands and institutional pressures facing MNCs can be managed through internal mechanisms and processes to gain sustainable competitive advantages. Findings of this research offered better explanation for the widely debated relationships between CSR and firm performance from CSR theorists. Furthermore, by integrating RBV and institutional theory, this research theoretically and empirically demonstrated the way MNCs develop firm-specific advantages and country-specific advantages through their proactive CSR management conducted by subsidiaries, and hence provided theoretical and practical insights in international management.
目次 Table of Contents
1.1 RESEARCH BACKGROUND….................................2
1.2 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES………….........................4
1.3 RESEARCH PROCEDURES ....................................5
2 LITERATURE REVIEW& BUILDING THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK......................................................................7
2.1 THEORETICAL BACKGROUND…………………....7
2.2 SUBSIDIARY SUSTAINABILITY- STAKEHOLDER RELATIONAL CAPITAL, SUSTAINABLE CAPABILITIES AND SUBSIDIARY PERFORMANCE: STAKEHOLDER PERSPECTIVE…………………….................................14
2.3 INSTITUTIONAL ENVIRONMENT AND SUBSIDIARY SUSTAINABILITY:
AN INSTITUTIONAL PERSPECTIVE……….................28
2.4 CORPORATE SOCIAL CULTURE AND SUBSIDIARY SUSTAINABILITY: RBV PERSPECITVE ................................................................32
2.5 STAKEHOLDER MANAGEMENT MECHANISMS, CORPORATE SOCIAL
CULTURE AND SUBSIDIARY SUSTAINABILITY: STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT
2.6 A COMBINATION OF STAKEHOLDER RBV & INSTITUTIONAL PERSPECTIVES………… ……......53
3.1 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK………………......57
3.3 MEASUREMENT AND INSTRUMENT………….72
3.4 PRELIMINARY RESEARCH- CASE STUDIES..73
3.6 DATA ANALYSIS…………………………..............85
3.7 MODEL TESTING……………… ………...............87
4 RESULTS & DISCUSSION………………..............93
4.1 FACTOR ANALYSES & RELIABILITY…………...93
4.2 DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS……………………104
4.3 STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODELING….......108
5 CONCLUSION & SUGGESTION……………….118
5.2 SUGGESTION AND IMPLICATION…………...128
5.3 RESEARCH CONTRIBUTION.......……………166
Acedo, F. J., Barroso, C., & Galan, J. L. 2006. The resource-based theory: dissemination and main trends. Strategic Management Journal, 27: 621-636.
Aguilera, R. V., & Jackson, G. 2003. The cross-national diversity of corporate governance: dimensions and determinants. Academy of Management Review, 32(1): 273-292.
Aguilera, R. V., Rupp, D. E., Williams, C. A., & Ganapathi, J. 2007. Putting the S back in corporate social responsibility: a multilevel theory of social change in organizations. Academy of Management Review, 32(3): 836-863.
Aragón-Correa, J. A. & Rubio-López, E. A. 2007. Proactive corporate environmental strategies:
myths and misunderstandings. Long Range Planning, 40: 357-381.
Aragón -Correa, J. A., & Sharma, S. 2003. A contingent resource-based view of proactive
corporate environmental strategy. Academy of Management Review, 28: 71–88.
Avolio, B. J. 1999. Full leadership development: Building the vital forces in organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Bansal, P. 2005. Evolving sustainability: A longitudinal study of corporate sustainable development’’, Strategic Management Journal, 26:197-218.
Barney, J. B. 1986. Organizational culture: Can it be a source of sustained competitive advantage? Academy of Management Review, 11: 656–665.
Barney, J. B. 1991. Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Journal of Management, 17(1), 99-120.
Barney, J. B.& Hansen, M. H. 1994. Trustworthiness as a source of competitive advantage. Strategic Management Journal, 15: 175-190.
Bartlett CA, Ghoshal S. 1989. Managing across borders: the transnational solution. Harvard Business School Press: Cambridge MA.
Bartlett CA, Ghoshal S, Birkinshaw J. 2003. Transnational management. McGraw-Hill: Boston MA.
Basu, K. & Palazzo, G. 2008. Corporate social responsibility: a process model of sensemaking. Academy of Management Review, 33(1): 122-36.
Bass, B. M. 1985. Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: Free Press.
Bass, B. M. 1998. Transformational leadership: Industry military, and educational impact. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Becker, B. E. & Huselid, M.A. 2006. Strategic Human Resources Management: Where Do We Go From Here? Journal of Management, 32(6): 898-925
Berman, S. L., Wicks, A. C., Kotha, S., & Jones, T. M. 1999. Does stakeholder orientation matter? The relationship between stakeholder management models and firm financial performance. Academy of Management Journal, 42: 488–506.
Bies, R. J., Bartunek, J. M., Fort, T. L., & Zald, M. N. 2007. Coporations as social change agents: individual, interpersonal, institutional, and environmental dynamics. Academy of Management Review, 32(3): 788-793.
Birchard, B. 1995. How many masters can you serve? CFO, 11(7): 48-53.
Bird, F., & Waters, J. 1989. The moral muteness of managers. California Management Review, 31: 73-88.
Birkinshaw, J., Braunerhjelm, P., Holm, U., & Terjesen, S. 2006. Why do some multinational corporations relocate their headquarters overseas? Strategic Management Journal, 27: 681-700.
Boudreau, J.W., & Ramstad, P,M. 2005. Talentship, talent segmentation, and sustainability: a new HR decision science paradigm for a new strategy definition. Human Resource Management, 44(2): 129-136.
Branco, M. C, & Rodrigues, L. L. 2006. Corporate social responsibility and resource-based perspectives. Journal of Business Ethics, 69:111–132
Brown, M. E., Treviño, L. K., & Harrison, D. A. 2005. Ethical leadership: A social learning
perspective for construct development and testing. Organizational Behavior and Human
Decision Processes, 97: 117-134.
Burke, L. & Logsdon, J. M. 1996. How corporate social responsibility pays off, Long Range Planning, 29, 495e502.
Butterfield, K. D., Treviño, L. K., & Weaver, G. R. 2000. Moral awareness in business
organizations: Influences of issue-related and social context factors. Human Relations,
Carlson, D. S., & Perrewe, P. L. 1995. Institutionalization of organizational ethics through transformational leadership. Journal of Business Ethics, 14: 829–838.
Carroll, A. 1979. A three-dimensional model of corporate social performance. Academy of Management Review, 4: 497-505.
Carroll, A. B. 1991. The pyramid of corporate social responsibility: Toward the moral management of organizational stakeholders, Business Horizons, 34(4), 39-48.
Clarkson, M. E. 1995. A stakeholder framework for analyzing and evaluating corporate social performance. Academy of Management Review, 20(1): 92-117.
Collins, C. & Smith, K. G. 2006. Knowledge exchange and combination: the role of human resource practices in the performance of high-technology firms. Academy of Management Journal, 49(3): 544-560.
Dean, T. J., & Brown, R. L. 1995. Pollution regulation as a harrier to new firm entry: Initial evidence and implications for future research. Academy of Management Journal, 38: 288-303.
Denison, D. R. 1996. What is the difference between organizational culture and organizational climate? A native’s point of view on a decade of paradigm wars. Academy of Management Review, 21: 619–654.
DiMaggio, P. J. & Powell, W. W. 1983. The iron cage revisited: institutional isomorphism and collective rationality in organizational fields. American Sociological Review, 48: 147-160.
Doh, J. P., & Guay, T. R. 2006. Corporate social responsibility, public policy, and NGO activism in Europe and the United States: An institutional-stakeholder perspective. Journal of Management Studies, 43: 47–73.
Donaldson, T. 1996. When is different just different, and when is different wrong? Harvard Business Review, September-October: 48-62.
Donaldson, T. & Dunfee, T. W. 1994. Toward a unified conception of business ethics: integrative social contracts theory. Academy of Management Review, 19(2): 252-284.
Donaldson, T., & Preston, L. E. 1995. The stakeholder theory of the corporation: Concepts, evidence, and implications. Academy of Management Review, 20: 65–91.
Dowling, G. R. 2006. Communicating corporate reputation through stories. California Management Review, 49(1): 82-98
Durand, R. & Calori, R. 2006. Sameness, otherness? Enriching organizational change theories with philogophical considerations on the same and the other. Academy of Management Review, 31(1): 93-114.
Fombrun, C. J., Gardberg, N. A., & Barnett, M. L. 2000. Opportunity platforms and safety nets: Corporate citizenship and reputational risk. Business and Society Review, 105: 85–106.
Frankena, W. F. 1958. Obligation and motivation in recent moral philosophy. In A. I. Melden (Ed.), Essays in moral philosophy (pp: 40-81). Seattle: University of Washington Press.
Freeman, R. E. 1984. Strategic management: A stakeholder approach. Boston: Pitman
Friedman, M. 1970. The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits. New York Times, September 13: 32–33, 122–126.
Gardberg, N. A. & Fombrun, C. J. Corporate citizenship: creating intangible assets across institutional environments. Academy of Management Review, 31(2): 329-346.
Gardner, W. L., Avolio, B. J., Luthans, F., May, D. R., & Walumbwa, F. O. 2005. “Can you see the real me?” A self-based model of authentic leader and follower development. Leadership Quarterly, 16: 343-372.
Gaur, A. S. & Lu, J. W. 2007. Ownership strategies and survival of foreign subsidiaries: impacts of institutional distance and experience. Journal of Management, 33(1): 84-110.
Geertz, C. 1973. The interpretation of cultures: Selected essays. New York: Basic Books.
Gladwin, T. N, Kennelly, J. J., Krause, T. 1995. Shifting paradigms for sustainable development: implications for management theory and research. Academy of Management Review, 20(4): 874-907.
Ghoshal, S. 2005. Bad management theories are destroying good management practices. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 4(1): 75-91.
Ghoshal, S. & Moran, P. 1996. Bad for practice: a critique of the transaction cost theory. Academy of Management Review, 21(1): 13-47.
Godfrey, P. C. 2005. The relationship between corporate philanthropy and shareholder wealth: a risk management perspective. Academy of Management Review 30(4): 777–798.
Golden, B. R. 1992. The past is the past or is it- The use of retrospective accounts as indicators of past strategy. Academy of Management Journal, 35: 848–860.
Greenwood, R., & Hinings, C. R. 1996. Understanding radical organizational changes: Bringing together the old and new institutionalism. Academy of Management Review, 21: 1022-1054.
Hart, S. L. 1995. A natural resource-based view of the firm. Academy of Management Review, 20: 986-1014.
Hart, S., & Milstein, M. 2003. Creating sustainable value. Academy of Management Executive, 17(2): 56–69.
Hart, S., & Sharma, S. 2004. Engaging fringe stakeholders for competitive imagination. Academy of Management Executive, 18(1): 7–18.
Hatch, M. J. 1993. The dynamics of organizational culture. Academy of Management Review, 18: 657–693.
Hendry, J. 2004. Between enterprise and ethics: Business and management in a bimoral society. London: Oxford University Press.
Hillman, A. & Keim, G. D. 2001. Shareholder value, stakeholder management, and social issues: what’s the bottom line? Strategic Management Journal, 22(2): 125-139.
Hoffman, A. J. 1999. Institutional evolution and change: Environmentalism and the U.S. chemical industry. Academy of Management Journal, 42:351-371.
Hosmer, L.T. 1994. Strategic planning as if ethics mattered. Strategic Management Journal, 15: 17-34.
Husted, B. W., & Allen, D. B. 2006. Corporate social responsibility in the multinational enterprise: strategic and institutional approaches. Journal of International Business Studies, 37(6): 838-849.
Husted, B. W., & Allen, D. B. 2007. Corporate social responsibility in multinational enterprise: antecedents and value creation.. Journal of Business Ethics,, 74: 345-361.
Jacobides, M.G. & Winter S.G. 2005. The co-evolution of capabilities and transaction costs: explaining the institutional structure of production. Strategic Management Journal, 26: 395-413.
Johnson, R. A. & Greening, D. W. The effects of corporate governance and institutional ownership types of corporate social performance. Academy of Management Journal, 42(5): 564-576.
Johnson, G., & Scholes, K., 1993. Exploring corporate strategy: Text and cases (3rd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice- Hall.
Jones, T. 1995. Instrumental stakeholder theory: A synthesis of ethics and economics. Academy of Management Review, 20: 404-437.
Jones, T. M., Felps, W., & Bigley, G. A. 2007. Ethical theory and stakeholder-related decisions: the role of stakeholder culture. Academy of Management Review, 32(1): 137-155.
Kegan, R. 1982. The evolving self: Problem and process in human development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Kernis, M. H. 2003. Toward a conceptualization of optimal self-esteem. Psychological Inquiry, 14: 1-26.
King, A. W. 2007. Disentangling interfirm and intrafirm causal ambiguity: a conceptual model of causal ambiguity and sustainable competitive advantage. Academy of Management Review, 32(1): 156-178.
Koch, M. J. & McGrath, R. G. 1996. Improving labor productivity: human resource management policies do matter. Strategic Management Journal, 17(5): 335–354.
Kogut B, Zander U. 1993. Knowledge of the firm and the evolutionary theory of the multinational corporation. Journal of International Business Studies 24: 625-645.
Konrad, A., Steurer, R., Langer, M. E., & Martinuzzi, A. 2006. Empirical findings on business-society relations in Europe. Journal of Business Ethics, 63: 89-105.
Kostova, T. 1999. Transnational transfer of strategic organizational practices: A contextual perspective. Academy of Management Review, 24: 308-324.
Kostova, T., & Zaheer, S. 1999. Organizational legitimacy under conditions of complexity: The case of the multinational enterprise. Academy of Management Review, 24: 64–81.
Lengnick-Hall, C.A. 1996. Customer contributions to quality: a different view of the customer-oriented firm. Academy of Management Review, 21(3): 791-824.
Lengnick-Hall M. L., & Lengnick-Hall, C. A. 2003. Human Resource Management in the Knowledge Economy. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.
Locke, E. A., Latham, G. P., & Erez, M. 1988. The determinants of goal commitment. Academy of Management Review, 13: 23–39.
Logsdon, J., & Wood, D. J. 2002. Business citizenship: From domestic to global level of analysis. Business Ethics Quarterly, 12: 155–188
Lundan, S. 2004. Multinationals, environment and global competition. Oxford: Elsevier.
Luthans, F., & Avolio, B. J. 2003. Authentic leadership development. In K. S. Cameron, J. E. Dutton, & R. E. Quinn (Eds.), Positive organizational scholarship: 241-258. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.
MaCkey, A., MaCkey, T. B., & Barney, J. B. 2007. Corporate social responsibility and firm performance: investor preferences and corporate strategies. Academy of Management Review, 32(3): 817-835.
Mahapatra, S. 1984. Investor reaction to a corporate social accounting. Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, 11(1): 29-40.
Maignan, I., & Ferrell, O.C. 2001. Antecedents and benefits of corporate citizenship: an investigation of French businesses. Journal of Business Research, 51: 37-51
Maignan, I. & Ralston, D. A. 2002. Corporate social responsibility in Europe and the U.S.: Insights from businesses’ self-presentations. Journal of International Business Studies, 33: 497–514.
Margolis, J. D. & Walsh, J. W. People and Profits? 2001. The Search for a Link between a Firm’s Social and Financial Performance, Lawrence Erlbaum Publishers, Mahwah, NJ
Margolis, J. D. & Walsh, J. W. Misery, 2003. Loves Companies: Rethinking Social Initiatives by Business. Administrative science quarterly, 48: 268-305
Matten, D. & Crane, A. 2005. Corporate citizenship: toward an extended theoretical conceptualization. Academy of Management Review, 30(1): 166-179.
Maxfield, S. 2008. Reconciling corporate citizenship and competitive strategy: insights from economic theory. Journal of Business Ethics, 80:367–377.
McCarthy, D. J. & Puffer, S. M. 2008. Interpreting the ethicality of corporate governance decisions in Russia: utilizing integrative social contracts theory to evaluate the relevance of agency theory norms. Academy of Management Review, 33(1): 11-31.
McGuire, J. B., Alison, S., & Schneeweis, T. 1988. Corporate social responsibility and firm financial performance. Academy of Management Journal, 31(4): 854-872.
McWilliams, A. & Siegel, D. 2000. Corporate social responsibility and financial performance: Correlation or misspecification? Strategic Management Journal, 21, 603-609.
McWilliams, A., Cory, K. D., & Siegel, D. 2002. Raising rivals’ costs through political strategy: an extension of resource-based theory. Journal of Management Studies, 39(5): 707-723.
McWilliams, A., & Siegel, D. 2001. Corporate social responsibility: a theory of the firm perspective. Academy of Management Review, 26: 117-127.
Meyer, J. W., & Rowan, B. 1977. Institutionalized organizations: formal structures as myth and ceremony. American Journal of Sociology, 83: 340-363.
Miles, R. E., Snow, C. C., Meyer, A. D., & Coleman, Jr. H.J. 1978. Organizational strategy, structure, and process. Academy of Management Review, 3(3): 546-562.
Moran, P., & Ghoshal, P. 1999. Markets, firms, and the process of economic development. Academy of Management Review, 24(3):390-412.
Nehrt, C. 1998. Maintainability of first mover advantages when environmental regulations differ between countries. Academy of Management Review, 23(1):77-97.
Neubaum, D. O., & Zahra, S. A. 2006. Institutional ownership and corporate social performance: the moderating effects of investment horizon, activism, and coordination. Journal of Management, 32( 1): 108-131
Ni, L. 2006. Relationships as organizational resources: Examining public relations impact through its connection with organizational strategies. Public Relations Review, 32: 276-281.
Oliver, C. 1991. Strategic responses to institutional processes. Academy of Management Review, 16: 145-179.
Oliver, C. 1997. Sustainable competitive advantage: combining institutional and resource-based views. Strategic Management Journal, 18(9): 697-713.
Orlitzky, M. O. & Schmidt, F. L.& Rynes, S. L. 2003. Corporate social and financial performance: A meta-analysis, Organization Studies, 24, 403-442
Paine, L. S. 1996. Moral thinking in management: An essential capability. Business Ethics Quarterly, 6: 477–492.
Parry, K. W., & Proctor-Thomson, S. B. 2002. Perceived integrity of transformational leaders in organisational settings. Journal of Business Ethics, 35: 75–96.
Pettigrew, A. M. 1979. On studying organizational cultures. Administrative Science Quarterly, 24: 570–581.
Pfeffer, J. 2005. Changing mental models: HR’s most important task. Human Resource Management, 44(2): 123-128.
Peng, M. W. 2001. The resource-based view and international business. Journal of Management, 27: 803-829.
Poter ME. 1990. The Competitive Advantage of Nations. The Free Press: New York.
Porter, M. E. 1991. America's green strategy. Scientific American, 264(4): 168.
Porter, M., & Kramer, M R. 2002. The competitive advantage of corporate philanthropy. Harvard Business Review, December: 56-68.
Porter, M., & Kramer, M R. 2006. Strategy & society- the link between competitive advantage and corporate social responsibility. Harvard Business Review, December: 56-68.
Porter, M., & van der Linde, C. 1995. Green and Competitive: Ending the Stalemate. Harvard Business Review, 73(5): 120-134.
Prahalad, C.K., & Hammond. A. 2002. Serving the World’s Poor, Profitably. HARVARD BUSINESS REVIEW ,September: 48-57
Preston, L. E., & Post, J. E. 1975. Private management and public policy: The principle of public responsibility. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Rindova, V.P., Williamson, I. O., Petkova, A. P., & Sever, J. M. Being good or being known: an empirical examination of the dimensions, antecedents, and consequences of organizational reputation. Academy of Management Journal, 48(6): 1033–1049.
Rodriguez, P., Siegel, D. S., Hillman, A., & Eden, L. 2006. Three lenses on the multinational enterprise: politics, corruption, and corporate social responsibility. Journal of International Business Studies, 37(6): 733-746.
Rowe, M. 2006. Reputation relationships and risk: a CSR primer for ethics officers. Business and Society Review, 111(4): 441-455.
Rowley, T. J., & Berman, S. 2000. A brand new brand of corporate social performance. Business & Society, 39: 397–418.
Roome, N. 1992. Developing environmental management systems. Business Strategy and the Environment, 1: 11-24.
Roth, K. & Kostova, T. 2003. The use of the multinational corporation as a research contecxt. Journal of Management, 29(6): 883-902.
Rugman, A. M., & Verbeke, A. 1998. Corporate strategies and environmental regulations: An organizing framework. Strategic Management Journal, 19(4): 363-375.
Rugman, A. M., & Verbeke, A. 2001. Subsidiary-specific advantages in multinational enterprises. Strategic Management Journal, 22(3): 237-250.
Russo, M. V. & Fouts, P. A. 1997. A resource-based perspective on corporate environmental performance and profitability. Academy of Management Journal, 40(3): 535-559.
Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. 2003. On assimilating identities to the self: A self-determination theory perspective on internalization and integrity within cultures. In M. R. Leary & J. P Tangney (Eds.), Handbook of self and identity: 253-272. New York: Guilford.
Schein, E. H. 1985. Organizational culture and leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass
Schein, E. H. 1990. Organizational culture. American Psychologist, 45: 109–119.
Schein, E., 1992. Organizational culture and leadership (2nd ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Scherer, A. G., & Palazzo, G.. 2007. Toward a political conception of corporate responsibility: business and society seen from a habermasian perspective. Academy of Management Review, 32(4): 1096–1120.
Scherer, A. G., & Cording, M. 2006. A corporate social performance–corporate financial performance behavioral model for consumers. Academy of Management Review, 31(3): 540–558.
Scherer, A. G. and Smid, M. (2000). ‘The downward spiral and the US model business principles – why MNEs should take responsibility for the improvement of world-wide social and environmental conditions’. Management International Review, 40: 351–71.
Schuler, R. S. & Jackson, S. E. 1987. Linking competitive strategies with human resource management practices. Academy of Management Executive, 1(3): 207-219.
Smith, N. C. 2003. Corporate social responsibility: whether or how? California Management Review, Summer, 45(4): 52-76.
Shrivastava, P. 1995. The role of corporations in achieving ecological sustainability. Academy of Management Review, 20: 936–960.
Sharma S, Vredenburg H. 1998. Proactive corporate environmental strategy and the development of competitively valuable organizational capabilities. Strategic Management Journal, 19(8): 729–752.
Sirmon, D. G., Hitt, M. A., & Ireland, R. D. 2007. Managing firm resources in dynamic environments to create value: Looking inside the black box. Academy of Management Review, 32(1): 273-292.
Singer, A. E. 1994. Strategy as moral philosophy. Strategic Management Journal, 15: 191-213.
Snell, S. A. & Dean, J. W. 1992. Integrated manufacturing and human resource management: a human capital perspective. Academy of Management Journal, 35(3): 467-504.
Spell, C. S. & Blum, T. C. 2005. Adoption of workplace substance abuse prevention programs: strategic choice and institutional perspectives. Academy of Management Journal, 48(6): 1125-1142.
Spicer, A., Dunfe, T. W., & Bailey, W. J. 2004. Does national context matter in ethical decision making? An empirical test of integrative social contracts theory. Academy of Management Journal, 47(4): 610-620.
Suchman, M.C. 1995. Managing legitimacy: strategic and institutional approaches. Academy of Management Review, 20: 571-610.
Swanson, D. L. 1999. Toward an integrative theory of business and society: a research strategy for corporate social performance. Academy of Management Review, 24(3): 506-521.
Szulanski G. 1996. Exploring internal stickiness: impediments to the transfer of best practice within the firm. Strategic Management Journal, Winter Special Issue 17: 27-43.
Taylo, S., Taylo, S., & Taylo, N. 1996. Toward an integrative model of strategic international human resource management. Academy of Management Review, 21(4): 959-985.
Teece DJ, Pisano G., Shuen A. 1997. Dynamic capabilities and strategic management. Strategic Management Journal 18: 509-533.
Treviño, L. 1990. A cultural perspective on changing and developing organizational ethics. Research on Organizational Change and Development, 4: 195–230.
Treviño, L. K. 2000. Moral person and moral manager How executives develop a reputation for ethical leadership. California Management Review, 42(4): 128-142.
Treviño, L. K., & Weaver, G. R. 2003. Managing ethics in business organizations: A social science perspective. Stanford, CA: Stanford Business Books.
Trice, H. M., & Beyer, J. M. 1984. Studying organizational cultures through rites and ceremonials. Academy of Management Review, 9: 653–669.
Tsui, A. S., Nifadkar, S. S., & Ou, A. Y. 2007. Cross-national, cross-cultural organizational behavior research: advances, gaps, and recommendations. Journal of Management, 33(3): 426-478.
Turban, D. B. & Greening, D. W. 1997. Corporate social performance and organizational attractiveness to prospective employees. Academy of Management Journal, 40(3): 658-672.
Waddock, S. A. and Graves, S. B. 1997. The corporate social performance-financial performance link, Strategic Management Journal 18(4), 303-319.
Walsh, J. P., Weber, K., & Margolis, J. D. 2003. Social issues and management: Our lost cause found. Journal of Management, 29: 859–881.
Walumbwa, F. O., Avolio, B. J., Gardner, W. L., Wernsing, T. S., & Peterson, S. J. 2008. Authentic leadership: development and validation of a theory-based measure. Journal of Management, 34(1): 89-126.
Wartick, S. & Cochran, P. The evolution of the corporate social performance model. Academy of Management Review, 10(4): 758-769.
Weaver, G. R., Treviño, L. K., & Cochran, P. L. 1999. Corporate ethics programs as control
systems: influences of executive commitment and environmental factors. Academy of
Management Journal, 42(1): 41-57.
Weaver, G. R., Treviño, L. K., & Cochran, P. L. 2001.The role of human resources in
ethics/compliance management- A fairness perspective. Human Resource Management
Review, 11: 113-134.
Westney, D. E. 2005. Institutional theory and the multinational corporation. In S. Ghoshal & D. E. Westney (Eds.), Organization Theory and the Multinational Corporation (2nd ed.): 47-67. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Windsor, D. 2006. Corporate social responsibility: three key approaches. Journal of Management Studies, 43(1): 93-114.
Wiener, Y. 1982. Commitment in organizations: A normative view. Academy of Management Review, 7: 418–428.
Wirtenberg, J., Harmon, J. & Fairfield, K. D. 2007. HR’s role in building a sustainable enterprise: insights from some of the world’s best companies. Human Resource Planning, 30(1): 10-20.
Wood, D. J. 1991. Corporate social performance revisited, Academy of Management Review, 16(4), 691-718 (1991).
Wright, P. M., Dunford, B. B., & Snell, S. A. 2001. Human resources and the resource-based view of the firm. Journal of Management, 27(6): 701-722.
Wright, P. M. & McMahan, G. C. 1992. Theoretical perspectives for strategic human resource management. Journal of Management, 18(2): 295-320.
Zaheer, S. 1995. Overcoming the liability of foreignness. Academy of Management Journal, 38: 341-363.
論文使用權限 Thesis access permission：校內校外均不公開 not available
校內 Campus：永不公開 not available
校外 Off-campus：永不公開 not available
您的 IP(校外) 位址是 22.214.171.124
Your IP address is 126.96.36.199
This thesis will be available to you on Indicate off-campus access is not available.