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THE STUDY OF MEMBER’S IDENTITY AND QUANXI INFLUENCE ON COMMITMENT OF FORMAL TEAM IN TAIWANESE TOP MANAGEMENT TEAM
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Quanxi, Team Commitment, Chinese Culture, Leadership, Role Identity
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團隊的研究和運用在學界與實務界如風行草偃般盛行(Cohen & Bailey, 1997)，西方學者針對團隊所進行的研究從一九五０年代開始大量出現(Gusso & Dickson, 1996)。同時由於東亞經濟圈的崛起與成長，研究指出文化因素在東亞地區的組織的運作與成長中，發揮了重要的影響力 (Hall & Xu, 1990)。是以，如何釐清東方文化與西方文化團隊運作中的差異性，成為本研究的重要議題。
本研究以個案研究法，透過個案公司高層經營團隊的深入訪談，試圖掌握東方文化中的團隊運作細微且極具關鍵性的影響機制，希望能夠澄清東、西方文化差異下，團隊中所蘊含的不一樣的運作邏輯，並可避免粗糙援引西方社會所發展的團隊理論時，當應用在不一樣的文化環境下時，所可能產生的偏差推論 (Ling, Chia & Fang, 2000)。同時致力以從創新的觀點來重新檢視東方社會中的團隊運作邏輯，藉由掌握東方文化中特殊的關係邏輯，其在團隊成員互動中所發揮的影響力，來支持並加強對團隊的績效能力，讓組織的經營管理能發揮更卓越的成效。
The use of team has expanded dramatically in response to competitive challenges. In addition, academics have increasingly selected teams and team effectiveness as important areas for research in response to the increased use of teams in organizations (Cohen & Bailey, 1997). The influence of group was has manifested itself in many ways (Gusso & Dickson, 1996). Meanwhile, Moreover, a recent finding suggests that while cultural factors are important in the economic growth in the Far East (Hall & Xu, 1990), especially in organizations. Hofstede (1980) pointed out the difference of values between Chinese and American is obvious. Thus, most theories chiefly have been limited to the United States, where the vast majority of such studies were conducted (Erez & Earley, 1993). However, the process of globalization has created opportunities for transferring managerial techniques across cultures, and such attempts have not always been successful (Adler, 1986; England, 1983; Hofstede, 1980; Jaeger, 1983). Failures in transferring methods of human resource management across cultures suggest that culture acts as a moderator in the relationship between managerial techniques and employee behavior (Erez & Earley, 1993).
The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effects of team members’ identification in top management team that expose Chinese culture of “quanxi” on team performance. The work took an innovative perspective to investigate the invisibly managerial role in Chinese team. In order to develop the initial exploratory surveys, the work will integrate Chinese cultural influence within current work on teamwork of role identity theory, social identity theory, leadership and commitment in whole discussion.
On the basis of the study findings are congruent with role identity theory, and Chinese culture of “quanxi” affects on team members’ identity and commitment in Taiwanese top management team remarkably. In addition, perceived the leader’s expertise and interpersonal competency shows positive attitudes toward team members in terms of contribution to their commitment on team. The significant results propose the informal team exists in team leader’s recognition that is hided in formal team in organizational structure. At the same time, formal team members possess commitment on informal team unconscious. That is, the six propositions are built in such a way.
Proposition 1: The past existence of social “quanxi” in Chinese culture among team members influences their role identities and behaviors respond to other members in Taiwanese top management team.
Proposition 2: The past existence of social “quanxi” in Chinese culture contributes to the positive strength of team member’s commitment on team in Taiwanese top management team.
Proposition 3: The past existence of social “quanxi” in Chinese culture may inspire team member’s commitment on other members’ expectations in Taiwanese top management team.
Proposition 4: Team members perceived leader’s behavior and leadership may affect the relationship between team member’s identity and team member’s team commitment in Taiwanese top management team.
Proposition 5: The existence of informal team is hided in the formal team in organizational structure in Taiwanese top management team.
Proposition 6: The members in formal team commit on informal team unconsciously in Taiwanese top management team.
目次 Table of Contents
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
Research Background 1
Theoretical Framework 2
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 11
Overview of the Topic 11
Identity Theory 14
Past Conception of Commitment 20
Team Commitment 23
Cultural Effects on Chinese Organizational Performance 25
Explication of Relationship and Its Effect on Social Behavior 28
CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH MOTHOD 37
Research Group 37
Method of Data Collection 38
Procedures of Data Collection and Analysis 39
CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 41
Analysis of Team Members’ Backgrounds 41
Employment Channel 42
Long Term Interaction among Team Members 43
Promotion and as a Top Management Team Member 43
Analysis of Self-Viewed as Team Member’s Behavior 45
TMT Members’ Role Behaviors Respond to Leader 48
TMT Members’ Role Behaviors Respond to Subordinates 49
Analysis of Perceived Coworkers as Team Members 50
TMT Members’ Role Behaviors Respond to Team Members 50
Analysis of Exposure to Chinese Culture of “Quanxi” 54
Long Term Interaction among Team Members with Continuing Reinforced Process of “Quanxi” 56
The Analysis of Commitment 58
CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS 61
Suggestions for Further Research 67
APPENDIX The Interviewing Questionnaire 87
LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES
Table 4.1 The Classification of Team Members’ Backgrounds 41
Table 4.2 The Different TMT Members’ Behaviors Relate to The Existence or not of Former Supervisor-Subordinate Relationship 49
Figure1. Theoretical Framework 10
Figure 5. Organization Chart of Y Company 65
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