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博碩士論文 etd-0830111-114522 詳細資訊
Title page for etd-0830111-114522
論文名稱
Title
國際採購人員職能之探討-以某外商區域採購中心為例
The competence model of international merchandisers -example from an IPO
系所名稱
Department
畢業學年期
Year, semester
語文別
Language
學位類別
Degree
頁數
Number of pages
74
研究生
Author
指導教授
Advisor
召集委員
Convenor
口試委員
Advisory Committee
口試日期
Date of Exam
2011-06-02
繳交日期
Date of Submission
2011-08-30
關鍵字
Keywords
國際採購人員、國際採購辦公室、職能
international merchandiser, competence, international purchasing office
統計
Statistics
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中文摘要
國際採購是全球化環境中,企業為了獲得或維持競爭優勢所普遍採行的策略。兩岸三地是全球的製造中心,以提供多樣化、具價格競爭力產品吸引跨國公司採購。國際採購辦公室(International Purchasing Office, IPO)是國際採購的中間人,將原本單純買賣關係的國外客戶與所在區域供應商,連結成雙贏的策略伙伴,提昇彼此的競爭優勢,並協力將供應鏈的價值最大化。國際採購人員直接面對客戶和供應商,兼具採購人員和業務人員兩種角色功能,是IPO能提供傑出服務與創造價值的重要關鍵。
本研究以小型IPO為研究主體,目的在就現階段國際採購人員必須具備的職能做探索性的瞭解、具體對職能作分類並對職能進行行為基礎的描述。

本研究採「行為事例訪談」,訪問個案公司兩岸三地現職國際採購人員,請受訪者提供的關鍵事例,敘述當時的行為、想法、如何處理。訪談結束後,就訪談錄音逐字稿進行編碼、分析、職能辨識並參考Spencer & Spencer 五種型態的職能特質做分類。

本研究結論為國際採購人員五類職能當中,屬於冰山模型底層的動機、特質、自我概念是做好工作的根本源頭。其中動機含個人成就和獎酬收入動機;特質是客戶服務導向、主動積極與良好的適應力;自我概念為自我肯定及樂觀;知識包含產品開發、訂價、法規遵循、市場潮流及國際運輸;技巧則是影響力、人際關係、分析及思考、資訊蒐集、談判技巧和語言能力。

本研究結論希望可以分享給小型國際採購中心企業管理者、人力資源管理專業人員及國際採購人員思考管理措施或職涯發展的參考,並針對上述不同對象提出建議。
Abstract
In the environment of globalisation, international purchasing is the strategy most commonly adopted by enterprises to obtain or maintain competitive advantages. The region encompassing Taiwan, Hong Kong, and mainland China is a global manufacturing centre, providing a variety of price-competitive products to entice multinational enterprises to purchase from this area. The international purchasing office (IPO) is the intermediary of international purchasing, which connects international clients with regional suppliers to establish win-win strategic partnerships, improving competitive advantages for both parties and maximizing the value of the supply chain. International merchandisers directly contact clients and suppliers, playing the roles of buyer and sales people simultaneously, which is the essence of providing excellent service and creating value in IPO.
This study investigates small-sized IPOs. The objectives of this study are to conduct an exploratory survey of the necessary competencies of current international merchandisers and provide concrete classifications and basic behavioral descriptions thereof.

This study interviewed current international merchandisers in case IPOs in Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Mainland China through behavioral event interviews. The subjects provided critical cases and described their behavior, thoughts, and how the cases were handled. The interviews were recorded and transcribed. This study coded, analysed, and identified the competencies according to the transcripts, and referenced the five types competence characteristics given by Spencer and Spencer to classify the competencies.

This study concludes that among the five competencies of international merchandisers, the competencies of motives, traits, and self-concept at the base of the iceberg model are the fundamentals of good work performance. The five competencies are motives, traits, self-concept, knowledge, and skill. The motives include achievement orientation and incentives; traits include customer service orientation, a positive and active disposition, and great adaptability; the self-concepts are self-affirmation and optimism; knowledge includes product development, pricing, compliance, market trends, and international transportation; and the skills are influence, relationship building, analysing and thinking, information seeking, negotiation skills, and language competence.

The conclusions of this study propose suggestions for managers of small-sized IPOs, personnel in human resource management, and international merchandisers, in the hope of providing a reference concerning management measures or career development for these parties.
目次 Table of Contents
論文審定書 ................................................................... i
論文摘要 .................................................................... ii
Abstract ................................................................... iii
圖目錄 ....................................................................... v
表目錄 ...................................................................... vi
第一章 緒論 .................................................................. 1
第一節 研究背景與動機 ...................................................... 1
第二節 研究目的 ............................................................ 2
第三節 研究流程 ............................................................ 2
第二章 文獻探討 .............................................................. 4
第一節 國際採購 ............................................................ 4
第二節 國際採購人員 ........................................................ 8
第三節 職能的意義 ......................................................... 10
第四節 職能模型 ........................................................... 15
第三章 研究方法 ............................................................. 23
第一節 個案研究 ........................................................... 23
第二節 研究過程 ........................................................... 24
第四章 個案公司研究分析 ..................................................... 29
第一節 個案公司簡介 ....................................................... 29
第二節 動機 ............................................................... 34
第三節 特質 ............................................................... 36
第四節 自我概念 ........................................................... 43
第五節 知識 ............................................................... 44
第六節 技巧 ............................................................... 48
第七節 綜合討論 ........................................................... 58
第五章 結論與建議 ........................................................... 61
第一節 結論 ............................................................... 61
第二節 建議 ............................................................... 62
第三節 研究限制與後續研究建議 ............................................. 64
參考文獻 .................................................................... 65
附錄 訪談大綱 ........................................................... 67

圖目錄

圖1-1 研究流程圖……………………………………………………………… 3
圖2-1 國際採購辦公室與國外客戶、當地供應商關係……………………… 8
圖2-2 冰山模型………………………………………………………………… 12
圖2-3 職能的因果流程模式…………………………………………………… 14
圖2-4 工作職能評鑑過程……………………………………………………… 16
圖2-5 專家會議法之工作職能評鑑流程圖…………………………………… 17
圖3-1 訪談資料分析流程圖…………………………………………………… 28
圖4-1 個案公司銷售實績及計劃……………………………………………… 31
圖4-2 個案公司區域採購中心組織…………………………………………… 32



表目錄
表2-1 全球採購策略發展四階段及主要特徵………………………………… 5
表2-2 國際採購的決定因素…………………………………………………… 6
表2-3 職能模式應用於各項人力資源功能的效益…………………………… 19
表2-4 銷售週期長的職務特色………………………………………………… 20
表2-5 業務人員的一般模型…………………………………………………… 21
表3-1 受訪者來源資料………………………………………………………… 27
表4-1 總部產品群經理與區域採購人員工作對照…………………………… 33
表4-2 國際採購人員職能要項一覽表………………………………………… 59
參考文獻 References
參考文獻
一、中文部份

利豐研究中心, 2009, 供應鏈管理:利豐集團的實踐經驗,香港:三聯書店。

林文政,2006,「人才資本雜誌」, 2006年4月,
取自http://college.itri.org.tw/HCMarticle.aspx?id=117&cid=3&type=artl

吳芝儀、李奉儒譯,Michael Q. Patton著,1995,質的評鑑與研究,台北:桂冠。

楊國安, 2010,人才制高點:最佳雇主制勝之道,北京:商務印書。

楊國安, 2010, 組織能力的“楊三角”企業持續成功的秘訣,北京:機械工業。

魏梅金譯,Spencer, L. M., & Spencer, S. M. 著,2002,才能評鑑法,台北:商周。























二、英文部分

Benjamin, S., 1987, The people make the place, Personnel Psychology, 40

David, D. D., 1993, Competency-Based Performance Improvement: A Strategy for Organizational Change, New York: HRD Press, Inc.

Flanagan, J. C., 1954, The Critical Incident Technique, Psychological Bulletin, 51 (July)

Guest, D. E., 1995, Human resource management and performance: a review and research agenda. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 5 ( May)

Larry, B., & Ram, C., 2002, Execution-The Discipline of Getting Things Done, New York: Crown Business

Loura, M. B. & Stanley, E. F., 1993, International Purchasing, Benefit, Requirements and Challenges, International Journal of Purchasing and Material Management, Spring

Lucia, A. D., & Lepsinger, R., 1999, The art and science of competency models,
San Francisco: Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer.

Mansfield, R. S., 1996, Building Competency Model:Approaches for HR Professionals, Human Resource Management, Vol. 35, No.1

McLagan, P. A., 1980, Competency models. Training & Development Journal, 34 (12)

McLagan, P. A., 1983, Models for Excellence, D.C., The American Society for
Training and Development.

Parry, S., 1998, Just what is a competency? (And why should you care?) Training, 35 (6)

Raelin, J. A. & Cooledge, A. S., 1995, From generic to organic competencies.
Human Resource Planning 18 (3)

Robert, M. M. & Robert, J. T., 1991, Global Sourcing:A Development Approach, International Journal of Purchasing and Materials Management, Spring, 1991

Spencer, L. M. & Spencer, S. M., 1993, Competence at Work:Models for Superior Performance, New York:John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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