論文使用權限 Thesis access permission：校內公開，校外永不公開 restricted
校內 Campus：開放下載的時間 available 2007-09-05
校外 Off-campus：永不公開 not available
The Study of Top Management Team, Business Strategy, and HR System –An Integrated Model
Number of pages
溫金豐, 柯志哲, 林鉦棽, 葉穎蓉
Uen, Jin-Feng; Ko, Jyh-Jer Roger; Lin, Cheng-Chen; Yeh, Ying-Jung
Date of Exam
Date of Submission
top management team(TMT), strategic HR system, business strategy, TMT behavioral integration
本論文已被瀏覽 5695 次，被下載 39 次
The thesis/dissertation has been browsed 5695 times, has been downloaded 39 times.
Drawing on the upper-echelons (UE) theory and strategic human resources management (SHRM) framework, this study aims to study the effects of top management team (TMT) characteristics on business strategy, strategic HR system relationship, and TMT behavioral integration as a moderating variable among the relationships. This research used both a survey and company data of 122 publicly listed firms in Taiwan to tested an integrated theoretical model relating to TMT characteristics (i.e., TMT demographic heterogeneity and TMT perception towards HR value), business strategies (i.e., differentiation strategy), strategic HR system (i.e., high performance work system –HPWS) and TMT behavioral integration.
The findings of this study included: (1) the direct positive relationship between the differentiation strategy and HPWS; (2) the significant relationship between the TMT demographic heterogeneity (i.e. TMT functionality heterogeneity and TMT educational background heterogeneity) and TMT perception towards HR value, and differentiation strategy; (3) the significant relationships between TMT perception towards HR value and differentiation strategy as well as its relationship with HPWS; and (4) a full moderation effect of TMT behavioral integration in the relationship between TMT perception towards HR value and HPWS. This study demonstrates significant associations between TMT, business strategy and HPWS. Reported results support some of the previously established relationships. Implications for future research are discussed.
目次 Table of Contents
I. INTRODUCTION 1
II. THEORY AND HYPOTHESIS
2.1 Business Strategy and Strategic Human Resource Management Practices 6
2.2 The Upper-Echelons Theory 19
2.3 Effects of Top-Management-Team Heterogeneity 30
2.4 Moderating Role of Team Behavioral Integration 37
3.1 Research Framework 47
3.2 Sample 49
3.3 Measures 54
3.4 Data Analysis 60
IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Scale Validation 62
4.2 Descriptive Statistics and Correlations 69
4.3 Regression Analyses 72
4.4. Moderated Hierarchical Regression Analyses 76
4.5 Summary and Discussion of the Empirical Findings 88
5.1 Contributions 93
5.2 Future Directions 96
5.3 Limitations 97
5.4 Managerial Implication 99
Appendix 1 Questionnaire Administrated to HR Manager 112
Appendix 2 Questionnaire Administrated to CEO 115
Appendix 3 Questionnaire Administrated to HR Manager (Chinese Version) 人力資源管理政策與實務問卷 117
Appendix 4 Questionnaire Administrated to CEO (Chinese Version) 高階經理人經營團隊與企業策略問卷 119
Abrahamson, E. 1991. Managerial fads and fashions: the diffusion and rejection of innovations. Academy of Management Review, 16: 586-612.
Ackermann, K.F. 1986. A contingency model of HRM strategy: Empirical search findings reconsidered. Paper presented at the European Institute for advanced Studies in Management workshop on Strategic Human Resource Management, Brussels.
Adler, N., & Ghadar, F. 1990. Strategic human resource management: A global perspective. In R. Pieper (Ed.), Human resource management in international comparison: 235-260. Berlin: de Gruyter.
Aiken L.S., & West S.G. 1991. Multiple regressions: Testing and interpreting interactions. Newsbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
Aldrich, H. E. 1979. Organizations and Environments. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Arthur, J. 1992. The link between business strategy and industrial relations systems in American steel minimills. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 45: 488-506.
Astley, W.G. & Van de Ven, A.H. 1983. Central perspectives and debates in organization theory. Administrative Science Quarterly, 28: 245-273.
Bae, J., & Lawler, J. 2000. Organizational and HRM strategies in Korea: Impact on firm performance in an emerging economy. Academy of Management Journal, 43:502-517.
Bird, A., & Beechler, S. 1995. Links between business strategy and human resource management strategy in U.S.-based Japanese subsidiaries: An empirical investigation. Journal of International Business Studies, 26: 23-46.
Baird, L., & Meshoulam, I. 1988. Managing two fits of strategic human resources management. Academy of Management Review, 13(1): 116-128.
Bamberger P., & Fiegenbaum, F. 1996. The Role of Strategic Reference Points in Explaining the Nature and Consequences of Human Resources Strategy. Academy of Management Review, 21: 926-958.
Bamberger, P. & Meshoulam I. 2000. Human Resource Strategy: Formulation, implementation, and impact. Newsbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
Bamberger, P. & Phillips, B. 1991. Organizational environment versus business strategy: Parallel versus conflicting influences on HR strategy. Human Resource Management, 30: 153-182.
Bantel, K. A. & Jackson, S. E. 1989. Top Management and Innovations in Banking: Does the Composition of the Top Team Make a Difference? Strategic Management Journal, 10(Spec. Iss.): 107-127.
Barney, J. 1991. Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Journal of Management, 17: 99-120.
Batt, R. 2002. Managing customer services: Human resource practices, quit rates, and sales growth. Academy of Management Journal, 45: 587-597.
Blau, P.M. 1977. Inequality and Heterogeneity: A Primitive Theory of Social Structure. New York: Free Press.
Bourgeois, L.J. III 1980. Performance and consensus. Strategic Management Journal, 1: 227-248.
Butler, J.E., Ferris, G.R., & Napier, N.K. 1991. Strategic human resource management. Cincinnati: South-Western.
Carpenter, M.A., & Finkelstein, S. 2001. Top management teams, global strategic posture, and the moderating role of uncertainty. Academy of Management Journal, 44(3): 533-545.
Carpenter, M.A., Geletkanycz, M.A., & Sander, W. G. 2004. Upper Echelon Research Revisited: Antecedents, Elements, and Consequences of Top Management Team Composition. Journal of Management, 30(6): 749-778.
Chang, P.L. & Chen, W.L. 2002. The effect of human resource practices on firm performance: empirical evidence from high-tech firms in Taiwan. International Journal of Management, 19(4): 622-631.
Chen, M. 2001. Inside Chinese business: a guide for managers worldwide. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
Chen, S. 2005. Human resource practices, organizational turnover, and firm performance in Taiwan. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Academy of Management, Hawaii, United States.
Cohen, J., Cohen, P., Aiken, L.S. & West, G.W. 2003. Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences (3rd version). Mahwah, NJ: L. Erlbaum Associates.
Collins, C. J., & Clark, K. D. 2003. Strategic human resource practices, top management team social network, and firm performance: the role of human resource practices in creating organizational competitive advantage. Academy of Management Journal, 46 (6): 740-751.
Conner, K. 1991. A historical comparison of resource-based theory and five schools of thought within industrial organization economics: Do we have a new theory of the firm? Journal of Management, 17: 121-154.
Cyert, R., & March, J. 1963. A Behavioral Theory of the Firm. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Daellenbach, U., McCarthy, A., & Schoenecker, T. 1999. Commitment to innovation: The impact of top management characteristics. R&D Management, 29: 199-208.
Dearborn, D.C., & Simon, H.A. 1958. Selective perceptions: A note on the departmental identification of executives. Sociometry, 21:140-144.
Delery, J.E. 1998. Issues of fit in strategic human resource management: Implications for research. Human Resource Management Review, 8: 289-309.
Delery, J.E., & Doty H.D. 1996. Modes of theorizing in strategic human resource management: Tests of universalistics, contingency, and cofigurational performance predictions. Academy of Management Journal, 39: 802-835.
Demanpour, F. 1991. Organizational innovation: A meta-analysis of effects of determinants and moderators. Academy of Management Review, 34: 555-590.
Dess, G. G. 1987. Consensus on strategy formulation and organizational performance: competitors in a fragmented. Strategic Management Journal, 8 (3): 259-278.
DiMaggioa, P., & Powell, W. 1983. The iron cage revisited: Industrial isomorphism and collective rationality in organizational fields. American Sociological Reviews, 35: 147-160.
Dyer, L. 1983. Bringing Human Resources into the Strategy Formulation Process, Human Resource Management, 22: 257-271.
Dyer, L. 1984 Studying human resource strategy: an approach and an agenda. Industrial Relations, 23: 153-169.
Dyer, L., & Holder, G. 1988. A strategic perspective of human resource management, In L. Dyer& G.W. Holder (Eds.), Human Resource Management: Evolving roles and responsibilities (pp.1-45). Washington, DC: American Society for Personnel Administration.
Eby, L.T., & Dobbins, G.H. 1997. Collectivistic orientation in teams: an individual and group-level analysis. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 18(3): 275-295.
Eisenhardt, K. 1989. Agency theory: an assessment and review. Academy of Management Review: 14, 57-74.
Eisenhardt, K., & Schoonhoven, C. 1990. Organizational growth: linking founding team, strategy, and growth among U.S. semiconductor ventures, 1978~1988. Administrative Science Quarterly: 35, 504-529.
Eisenhardt, K., & Schoonhoven, C. 1996. Resource-based View of Strategic Alliance Formation: Strategic and Social Effects in Entrepreneurial Firms. Organization Science: A Journal of the Institute of Management Sciences, 7 (2): 136-150.
Ensley, M. D., Pearson, A., & Pearce, C. L. 2003. Top management team process, shared leadership, and new venture performance: a theoretical model and research agenda. Human Resource Management Review, 13(2): 329-346.
Ferris, G., & Judge, T. 1991. Personnel/ human resource management: A political influence perspective. Journal of Management, 17: 1-42.
Finkelstein, S., & Hambrick, D. C. 1990. Top-Management-Team Tenure and Organizational Outcomes: The Moderating Role of Managerial Discretion. Administrative Science Quarterly, 35(3): 484-503.
Flood, P. C., Smith, K. A., & Derfus, P. 1996. Top management teams: A neglected topic in strategic human resource management. Irish Journal of Management, 17(1): 1-17.
Ford, J. K., MacCallum, R. C., & Tait, M. 1986. The application exploratory factor analysis in applied psychology: A critical review and analysis. Personnel Psychology, 39: 291-314.
Gerstein, M., & Reisman, H. 1983. Strategy selection: Matching executive to business conditions. Sloan Management Review, 24: 33-49.
Grundy, T. 1998. How are Corporate Strategy and Human Resources Strategy Linked? Journal of General Management, 23 (3): 49-73.
Gupta, A. K., & Govindarajan, V. 1984. Business Unit Strategy, Managerial Characteristics, and Business Unit Effectiveness at Strategy Implementation. Academy of Management Journal, 27 (1): 25-41.
Hage, J., & Dewar, R. 1973. Elite values versus organizational structure in predicting innovation. Administrative Science Quarterly, 18: 279-290.
Hambrick, D. C. 1989. Guest editor's introduction: putting top managers back into the strategy picture. Strategic Management Journal, 10(Summer): 5-15.
Hambrick, D. C. 1994. Top management groups: a conceptual integration and reconsideration of the “team” label. Research in Organizational Behavior, 16: 171-213.
Hambrick, D. C. 1997. Corporate coherence and the top management team. Strategy & Leadership, 25 (5): 24-29.
Hambrick, D. C. 2007. Upper echelons theory: an update. Academy of Management Review, 32(2): 334-343.
Hambrick, D. C., & Brandon, G. 1988. Executive values. In D. C. Hambrick (Ed.), The executive effect: Concepts and methods for studying top managers: 3-34, Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
Hambrick, D. C., Cho, T., & Chen, M.-J. 1996. The influence of top management team heterogeneity on firms' competitive moves. Administrative Science Quarterly, 41: 659-684.
Hambrick, D., & Finkelstein, S. 1987. Managerial discretion: a bridge between polar views of organizations. Research in Organizational Behavior, 9: 396-406.
Hambrick, D. & Mason, P. 1984. Upper echelons: The organization as a reflection of its top managers. Academy of Management Review, 9(2): 193-206.
Hannan, M.T. & Freeman, J.H. (1977) The population ecology of organizations. American Journal of Sociology, 82: 929-964.
Henderson, A. & Fredrickson, J. (2001) Top management team coordination needs and the CEO pay gap: a competitive test of economic and behavioral views. Academy of Management Journal, 44 (1): 96-117.
Huselid, M. A. 1995. The impact of human resource management practices on turnover, productivity, and corporate financial performance. Academy of Management Journal, 38: 635-672.
Huslid, M.A., & Becker, B.E.1996, Methodological issues in cross-sectional and panel estimates of the human resource-firm performance link. Industrial Relations. 35: 400-422.
Huselid, M. A., Jackson, S. E., & Schuler, R. S.1997.Technical and strategic human resources management effectiveness as determinants of firm performance. Academy of Management Journal, 40(1): 171-188.
Iaquinto, A. L., & Fredrickson, J. W. 1997. Top management team agreement about the strategic decision process: A test of some of its determinants and consequences. Strategic Management Journal: 18 (1), 63-75.
Ichniowski, C., Shaw, K., & Prennushi, G. 1997. The effects of human resource management practices on productivity: A study of steel finishing lines. American Economic Review, 87: 291-313.
Jackson, S. E., & Schuler, R. S. 1995. Understanding human resource management in the context of organizations and their environments. Annual Review of Psychology, 46 (1): 237-264.
Jackson, S.E., Schuler, R.S., & Rivero, J.C. 1989. Organizational characteristics as predictors of personnel practices. Personnel Psychology, 42: 727-786.
Jackson, S. E., Joshi, A., & Erhardt, N. L. 2003. Recent Research on Team and Organizational Diversity: SWOT Analysis and Implications. Journal of Management, 29 (6): 801-830.
Johns, G. 1993. Constrains on the adaptation of psychology-based personnel practices: Lessons from organizational innovation. Personnel Psychology, 46: 569-592.
Keck, S. 1997. Top Management Team Structure: Differential Effects by Environmental Context. Organization Science: A Journal of the Institute of Management Sciences, 8 (2): 143-157.
Ketchen, D., & Palmer, T. 1999. Strategic responses to poor organizational performance: a test of competing perspectives. Journal of Management: 25, 683-706.
Kochan, T.A., & Chalykoff, J. 1985. Human resource management and business life cycles: Some preliminary propositions. Paper presented at the Conference on Human Resource and Industrial Relations in High Technology Firms. Los Angeles.
Kossek, E. 1987. Human resource management innovation. Human Resource Management, 26(1): 71-92.
Lado, A., & Wilson, M. 1994. HR systems and sustained competitive advantage: A competency-based perspectives. Academy of Management Review, 19: 699-727.
Lawrence, B.S. 1997. The black box of organizational demographic. Organization Science, 8: 1-22.
Lengnick-Hall, C., & Lengnick-Hall, M. 1988. Strategic Human Resources Management: a Review of the Literature and a Proposed Typology. Academy of Management Review, 13(3): 454-470.
Lepak, D. P., & Snell, S.A. 1999. The human resource architecture: Toward a theory of human capital allocation and development. Academy of Management Review, 24: 31-48.
Lewin, D., & Yang, J.Z. 1992. HRM policies and practices of U.S. and Japanese firms operating in the U.S. In J.F. Burton, Jr. (Ed.), Proceeding of the 44 Annual Meeting of the Industrial Relations Research Association: 344-351. New Orleans: IRRA.
Li, J.T., & Hambrick, D.C. 2005. Factional groups: A new vantage on demographic faultiness, conflict, and disintegration in work team. Academy of Management Review, 48:794-813.
Lieberson, S. & O'Connor, J.F. 1972. Leadership and organizational performance: A study of large corporations. American Sociological Review, 37: 117-130.
Lubatkin, M., Simsek, Z., Ling, Y., & Veiga, J.F. 2006. Ambidexterity and performance on small-to medium-sized firms: The pivotal role of TMT behavioral integration. Journal of management, 32:646-672.
Macduffie. J.P. 1995. Human resource bundles and manufacturing performance: Organizational logic and flexible production systems in the world auto industry. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 48: 197-221.
March, J., & Simon, H. 1958. Organizations. New York: John Wiley.
Martell, K., & Carroll, S. J. 1995 Which Executive Human Resource Management Practices for the Top Management Team Are Associated with Higher Firm Performance? Human Resource Management, 34 (4): 497-512.
Michel, J., & Hambrick, D. 1992. Diversification posture and top management team characteristics. Academy of Management Journal, 35: 9-37
Miles, E. R., & Snow, C. M. 1984. Designing strategic human resource systems. Organizational Dynamics, 13: 36-52.
Miller, D., & Toulouse, J. 1986. Chief executive personality and corporate strategy and structure in small firms. Management Science, 32(11): 1389-1410.
Milliman, J. M., Von Glinow, M. A., & Nathan, M. 1991. Organizational life cycles and strategic international human resource management in multinational companies: Implications for congruence theory. Academy of Management Review, 16: 318-339.
Mischel, W. 1977. The interaction of person and situation. In D. Magnusson & N.S. (Eds.), Personality at the crossroads: Current issues in interactional psychology: 217-247. Hillsdale, NY: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Mooney, A.G. 2000. The antecedents to conflict during strategic decision making: The importance of behavioral integration. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Georgia, Athens.
Murray, A. I. 1989. Top Management Group Heterogeneity and Firm Performance. Strategic Management Journal. 10: 125 –141.
O’Reilly, C.A., Caldwell, D.F., & Barnett, W.P. 1989. Work group demography, social integration, and turnover. Administrative Science Quarterly, 34: 21-37.
O'Reilly, C.A., Snyder, R.C., & Boothe, J.N. 1993. Executive team demography and organizational change. In G.P. Huber & W.H. Glick (Eds.) Organizational change and redesign: Ideas and insights for improving performance:147-175. New York: Oxford University Press.
Papadakis, V., & Barwise, P. (2002). How much do CEOs and top managers matter in strategic decision-making? British Journal of Management, 13( 1): 83-95.
Pfeffer, J. 1983. Organizational demography. In L. L. Cummings and Barry M. Staw (eds.), Research in Organizational Behavior, 5: 299-357. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
Pfeffer, J. 1994. Competitive advantage through people. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School.
Pfeffer, J., & Salancik, G. 1978. The external control of organizations. New York: Harper & Row.
Podskoff, P.M., & Organ, D.W. 1986. Self-report in organizational research: Problem and prospects. Journal of Management, 12: 531-544.
Podsakoff, P. M., Mackenzie, S. B., Lee, J. Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. 2003. Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5): 879-903.
Porter, M. 1980. Competitive strategy. New York: The Free Press.
Porter, M. 1985. Competitive Advantage. NY: The Free Press.
Priem, R., Lyon, D., & Dess, G. 1999. Inherent limitations of demographic proxies in top management heterogeneity research. Journal of Management, 25: 935-953.
Quinn, J.B. 1978. strategic change: The logic of incrementalism. Sloan Management Review, 28: 7-21.
Reuber R., & Fischer E. 1997. The influence of the management team’s international experience on the internationalization behaviors of SMEs. Journal of International Business, 28: 807-825.
Rousseau, D. & Fried, Y. 2001. Location, location, location: Contextualizing organizational research. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 22: 1-13.
Salancik, G.R., & Pfeffer, J. 1977. Constraints on administrator discretion: The limited influence of mayors on city budget. Urban Affaires Quarterly, 12:475-498.
Sambharya R. B. 1996. Foreign experience of top management teams and international diversification strategies of U.S. multinational corporations. Strategic Management Journal, 17(9): 739-746.
Sanders, W., & Carpenter, M. 1998. Internationalization and firm governance: the role of CEO compensation, top team composition, and board structure. Academy of Management Journal, 41: 158-178.
Schendel, D.E., & Hofer, C. W. 1979. Strategic management: A new view of business and planning. Boston, MA: Little Brown.
Schuler, R.S. 1987. Personnel and Human Resource Management Choices and Organizational Strategy. Human Resource Planning, 10 (1): 1-17.
Schuler, R.S. 1992 Strategic human resource management: Linking the people with the strategic needs of the business. Organizational Dynamics, 21: 18-31.
Schuler, R. S., & Jackson, S. E. 1987. Organizational strategy and organization level as determinants of human resource management practices. Human Resource Planning, 10(3): 125-142.
Schuler, R., Dowling, P., & De Cieri, H. 1993. An integrative framework of strategic international human resource management. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 1: 717-764.
Seer, A. 1989. Team member exchange quality: A new construct for role-making research. Organization Behavior and Human Decision Processes. 43:118-135.
Simsek, Z., Veiga, J. F., Lubatkin, M. H., & Dino, R. N. 2005. Modeling the multilevel determinants of top management team behavioral integration. Academy of Management Journal, 48 (1): 69-84.
Smith, K.G., Smith, K.A., Olian, J.D., Sims, H.P., O'Bannon, D.P., & Scully, J.A. 1994. Top management team demography and process: The role of social integration and communication. Administrative Science Quarterly, 39: 412-438.
Snell S.A. 1992. Control theory in strategic human resource management: The mediating effect of administrative information. Academy of Management Journal, 35:292-372.
Takeuchi, N., Wakabayashi, M., & Chen, Z. 2003. The strategic HRM configuration for competitive advantage: Evidence from Japanese firms in China and Taiwan. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 20: 447-480.
Taylor, S., Beechler, S. 1996. Toward and integrative model of strategic international human resource management. Academy of Management Review, 21: 959-985.
Thomas, E.J., & Fink, C.K. 1963. Effect of group size. Psychological bulletin, 60: 371-384.
Thomas, J., & McDaniel, R. 1990. Interpreting strategic issues: effects of strategy and the information processing structure of top management teams. Academy of Management Journal, 33: 286-306.
Wagner, E.G., Pfeffer, G., & O’Reilly, C.A. 1984. Organizational demography and turnover in top management groups. Administrative Science Quarterly, 29: 74-92.
Walsh, J. P. 1988 Selectivity and selective perception: An investigation of managers’ belief structures and information processing. Academy of Management Journal, 31:873-896.
Walton, R.W. 1985. From control to commitment in the workplace. Harvard Business Review, 77-84.
Weick, K.E. 1979. The social psychology of organizing, 2nd ed. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Weidenbaum, M. 1996. The Chinese family business enterprises, California Management review, 38: 144.
Wernerfelt, B. 1984. A resource-based theory of the firm. Strategic Management Journal, 5(2): 171-180.
West M.A., & Anderson N.R. 1996. Innovation in top management teams. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81 (6): 680-693.
Wiersema, M., & Bantel, K. 1992. TMT demography and corporate strategy change. Academy of Management Journal, 35: 91-121.
Wils, T., & Dyer, L. 1984. Relating business strategy to human resource strategy: Some preliminary evidence. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Academy of Management, Boston.
Wooldridge, B. & Floyd, S. 1989. Strategic process effects on consensus. Strategic Management Journal, 10: 295-302.
Wright, P. 2002. The HR practice-performance relationship-Theoretical and empirical challenges. Speech presented at National Sun Yat-sen University, Taiwan, Kaohsiung.
Wright, P. M., Dunford B. B., & Snell, S. A. 2001. Human resources and the resource-based view of the firm. Journal of Management, 27: 701-721.
Youndt, M.A., Snell, S.A., Dean, J.W., & Lepak, D.P. 1996. Human resource management, manufacturing strategy, and firm performance. Academy of Management Journal, 39: 836-866.
Zacharatos, A., Barling, J., & Iverson, R.D. 2005. High-performance work system and occupational safety. Journal of applied Psychology, 90(1):77-93.
Zaltman, G., Duncan, R., & Holbeck, J. 1973. Innovations and organizations. New York: John Wiley.
Zhu, W., Chew, I.K., & Spangler, W.D. 2005. CEO transformational leadership and organizational outcomes: The moderating role of human-capital-enhancing human resource management. The Leadership Quarterly, 16: 39-52
論文使用權限 Thesis access permission：校內公開，校外永不公開 restricted
校內 Campus：開放下載的時間 available 2007-09-05
校外 Off-campus：永不公開 not available
您的 IP(校外) 位址是 18.104.22.168
Your IP address is 22.214.171.124
This thesis will be available to you on Indicate off-campus access is not available.