The event that the Second People’s Power Revolution (EDSA II) forced President Estrada to resign from his presidency in January, 2001, was the first political violence after 1946, the year of the Independence of the Philippines. EDSA II, however, was neither a social revolution nor a military coup, but the combination of the two. The connotation of the event was actually a wrestle among a group of so-called pursuing democracy elite. The event, although, was probably considered as one of the domestic riots in the Philippines, it still became a controversial one which was specifically related to the issue of “the re-emergence of oligarchy”.
The study aimed to find out whether oligarchy re-emerged in the Philippine or not in terms of the context of oligarchy history, the oligarchy style of democracy transition, the source of EDSA II and the argument of EDSA II. The research, firstly, reanalyzed the history of the Philippines in order to trace back oligarchy in the Philippines, and then discussed the phenomena of “church involvement”, “military coup”, “constitutional conflict” and “people movement”, to show the fragile democracy in post-Marcos era. More than that, this study tried to clarify the myth of EDSA II, in terms of “ the cause and effect of the revolution”, “the argument and examination of the revolution” and “the myth and discussion of the revolution”. Finally, the issue of “the re-emergence of oligarchy” was discussed and concluded.
To sum up, the oligarchy did appear in the Philippines. With respect to EDSA II, it was by all means a competition game played by elite. Oligarchy, therefore, was still the main stream in this country.