||In industrial wastewater, there are usually many kinds of organics and heavy metals and can cause damage on human health and environment without well treatment. Printed Circuit Board (PCB) industrial wastewater is a typical example due to the complicated manufacture processes and the use of specific chemicals. In this study, the PCB industrial wastewater is collected and then treated by the combination of Fenton method and Ferrite Process (or called Fenton-Ferrite Process, FFP). Moreover, the recycling possibility of sludge generated from FFP is also studied. Through this study, the treatment procedure of wastewater containing organics heavy metals is established and the direction of sludge reuse is also provided. |
To realize the characteristic of PCB industrial wastewater, the wastewater from some PCB factory in southern Taiwan was firstly collected and analyzed to identify the pollution concentrations and then treated by FFP. The experimental results showed that the optimum parameters of Fenton method in FFP were pH = 2, [Fe2+]= 500 mg/L, [H2O2]= 3000 mg/L, reaction time= 60 min and batch dosing, and the residual COD and TOC were 84.9 mg/L and 58.3 mg/L under the COD regulation standard 120 mg/L. Meanwhile, the proper conditions of Ferrite Process in FFP were pH= 10, reaction temperature= 80℃, reaction time= 40 min, aeration rate= 3 L/min/L wastewater, Fe/Cu molar ratio= 10 and three-stage reaction. Under that circumstance, the residual [Cu2+] in wastewater was 0.18 mg/L and the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) test of sludge from FFP was 4.58 far below the effluent standard 3 mg/L and TCLP standard 15 mg/L.
The properties of sludge were further investigated by X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID). The pattern of XRD indicated that the major structures were Fe3O4 and CuFe2O4; the figure of SEM showed that the surface of sludge was composed of many round particles and the distribution of particle size was from 50 nm-100 nm; the magnetic property analyzed by SQUID showed that the saturation moment was 62.85 emu/g.
In the research of sludge applied in catalytic incineration, the o-xylene conversion was 97 % by sludge but only 31 % by quartz sand at 400 ℃. Moreover, in the 72 hr-decay test of catalyst, the results clearly indicated that the performance did not obviously decline and there were no any byproducts but CO2. Therefore, the investigation revealed that the sludge had great potential in catalytic reaction.
The catalytic performance of various ferrospinels generated from different manufactured conditions was also studied. Through the screening of catalysts, the order of various ferrospinels activity was Cu-ferrite > Mn-ferrite > ferrite ≒ Zn-ferrite and the most effective Cu-ferrite was manufactured at pH= 9 and T= 90 ℃. After 72 hr test, the decay of catalyst was not also found. In the examination of Cu-ferrite physical property, the XRD pattern showed that the structure was CuFe2O4; the figure of SEM illustrated that there was no difference between the surface of fresh and used catalyst; the magnetic property measured by SQUID showed that the saturation moment was 30.89 emu/g.