|| Mancur Olson states that individual, after reasonable evaluation, takes the action of free ride. The main factor of free ride lies in the goal of collective actions --- collective goods. And the non-excludability in collective goods enables consumers to benefit without sharing costs.|
Based on the framework of Olson’s and Russell Hardin’s theories of reaching the goal of collective actions, along with the theory of political entrepreneurs, this study surveys the collective actions of Tzu-Chi Foundation, in hope of depicting its factors and strategies for overcoming difficulties in collective actions.
This study gives an analysis of Tzu-Chi Foundation in terms of collective actions, concluding that its selective incentives are Master Cheng Yen’s unconditional love, cause & effect cycle and pursuit of pop culture.
Successful marketing and computerized fund-raise tactics make people more willing to invest time and money in promoting Tzu-Chi Foundation. Few entrepreneurs are willing to bear the costs even without cooperation from other members, as they are satisfied with the collective goods provided by the group, just as Hardin states.
Furthermore, one of the solutions to collective actions of free ride is to rely on organization operating by political entrepreneurs. Master Cheng Yen successfully plays the role of entrepreneur leader, adopting strategies like keeping equidistance from each political party, developing constant sense of mission within the organization, exercising mild leadership and management strategies, consolidating the Foundation with religious prospect, recruiting elites and making good use of talents...etc. Multiplied by her female leader impact on Taiwan, these factors combined are the key points of Tzu-Chi Foundation’s success.