||This research is a study of residential preferences and moving tendency of teachers in public schools in Kaohsiung who applied for retirement in 2003. It is intended to find out if there is any influence of personal backgrounds or needs of the subjects on their residential preferences and moving tendency, if their preferences are personal or environmental and if they find the current residences ideal—if they do, what are the characteristics of their ideal residences and if not, what are the reasons for them to move? Moreover, if they decided to stay where they are now living even when not satisfied with the residences, what are the reasons that stop them from moving?|
In the study, questionnaires were mailed to public high school teachers in Kaohsiung who were registered to retire in 2003. 378 of the questionnaires were answered and returned, accounting for 30% of the total amount. Among the residences of the subjects, the Daliao, Renwu, Linyuan and Qiaotou townships in Kaohsiung County were categorized as the suburban areas, the Gushan, Zhuoying, Nanzi, Qianzhen, Qijin and Xiaogang districts in Kaohsiung City were the urban areas while the Yanchen, Sanmin, Qianjin, Xinxing and Lingya districts were the downtown areas.
The statistic analysis of the returned questionnaires indicated significant connections among the subjects’ ideal residences, their birth places, the places they have lived the longest and the places where they grew up. For subjects now living in downtown and urban areas, their preferable residences were the suburban area and then the downtown area, the countryside, small town and middle-size city in the order of preference. For subjects living in the suburban areas, their ideal residences were, from the most preferred to the least, the suburban area, the countryside, middle-size city, small town and the downtown area. As for the ideal county or city for residence, many of the subjects found the county or city where they are currently living satisfactory and most of these subjects are now living in the suburban areas.
In terms of moving tendency, among the subjects who found their current residences ideal, the number of those who would not move was significantly larger than the others, while among the subjects who did not find their residences ideal, those who would not move was only slightly larger than those who would. Generally speaking, among all the subjects in this study, the number of those who would not move was significantly larger than those who would. Apparently, there is a significant connection between the subjects’ opinions about the current residences and their moving tendency.
For those subject who wanted to move even if they found their current residences ideal, the reasons could be divided into four aspects: the buildings, the natural environments, human factors and financial factors. The major reasons which stop the subjects from moving in this study were the financial factors, jobs of the families members, schooling of the family members and lack of spouse support. Among all the subjects, 70% thought they had found their ideal residences or believed they would in the future.
The subjects’ personal requirements of an ideal residence included employment opportunities, cultural activities, quality of nearby schools and religious beliefs while their environmental requirements were scenic view, interactions with friends, relatives and family members, living space and related facilities. For those subjects who found their current residences in the urban and downtown areas satisfactory, the environmental and personal requirements were almost equally importance while for the rest of the subjects, the environmental requirements were more important than the personal ones.
According to the findings of this research, it is suggested that the social care and welfare policies should be accordingly adjusted as the elder population increases while many retired elders will move to apartments or care houses which offer special care instead of living with their children. Secondly, this study also finds that more and more people are moving to the suburban areas, forming a consuming force that might be as equally worthy of attention as that in the urban areas. Thirdly, among the subjects who found ideal residences in the urban areas and middle-size cities, their personal requirements and environmental requirements of an ideal residence are almost equally important. However, among those subjects who preferred suburban areas, the countryside and small towns, the environmental requirements are more important than the personal requirements. Therefore, it is suggested that there should be more natural landscapes for residents in the urban areas while more efforts should be invested in preserving the natural environments in the suburban areas. Fourthly, as the elder population expands, the government should establish more institutions or facilities of medical care, social service, finance and transportation in the suburban areas where more and more retired elder will reside in the future. Fifthly, the government should provide policies which encourage citizens to have financial plans for their life after retirement while the enterprises should provide the employees with well-designed pension policies so that people can be economically carefree and move to their ideal residences if possible after retirement. Finally,the care of elders in each community is a very important issue in Taiwan.