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博碩士論文 etd-0830106-181458 詳細資訊
Title page for etd-0830106-181458
論文名稱
Title
台灣西南海域沉積物中持久性有機化合物含量分佈之研究
The distribution of Persistent Organic Compounds in the sediments of the Coastal Areas along the Southwestern Taiwan
系所名稱
Department
畢業學年期
Year, semester
語文別
Language
學位類別
Degree
頁數
Number of pages
109
研究生
Author
指導教授
Advisor
召集委員
Convenor
口試委員
Advisory Committee
口試日期
Date of Exam
2006-07-27
繳交日期
Date of Submission
2006-08-30
關鍵字
Keywords
多環芳香烴、多溴聯苯醚
PAHs, PBDEs, sediments
統計
Statistics
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The thesis/dissertation has been browsed 5735 times, has been downloaded 3135 times.
中文摘要
本研究主要分析台灣西南海域沉積物中多環芳香烴與多溴聯苯醚含量於空間上分布的情形,針對不同海域沉積物中的多環芳香烴的來源及特性做探討,並將海域沉積物中多溴聯苯醚濃度與河川沉積物相比較,以瞭解台灣目前環境中多溴聯苯醚含量分布之現況。
研究結果顯示台灣西南海域中沉積物總多環芳香烴濃度分布介於15-907 (ng/g dry wt)之間,總多溴聯苯醚濃度分布為N.D.-92 (ng/g dry wt),其中以BDE-209為最主要優勢化合物(68.8-77.9%)。多環芳香烴含量主要以高雄沿岸與高屏溪口海域濃度較高,台南沿岸與興達港海域濃度則較低。海域測站沉積物中多溴聯苯醚含量遠低於河川測站沉積物,另外海域及河川測站沉積物中多溴聯苯醚亦顯示出不同分布之型態。本研究之沉積物總多環芳香烴及總多溴聯苯醚濃度,與國外文獻相比屬於低污染的範圍。
台灣西南海域沉積物中總多環芳香烴濃度及總多溴聯苯醚濃度,與總有機碳含量之相關性,皆呈現顯著正相關性,而與中值粒徑大小比較結果,則呈現顯著負相關性。依沉積物品質參考準則(SQGs),各測站沉積物中總多環芳香烴濃度皆遠低於各項生物影響指標,顯示應不會對底棲生物造成影響。
群集分析(HCA)與主成分分析(PCA)結果皆顯示,台灣西南海域沉積物明顯可以區分出三個群集。整體而言,高雄沿岸沉積物之多環芳香烴主要為燃燒來源,而高屏溪海域沉積物則較傾向石油來源。對於多環芳香烴濃度較低的台南沿岸與興達港沿海之沉積物,則主要傾向生物來源。
Abstract
This study is to measure the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the sediments of the coastal areas along the southwestern Taiwan. Sediment samples were collected and analyzed to investigate the possible sources and characteristics.
The concentration of PAHs and PBDEs ranged from 15 to 907 and from N.D. to 92 ng/g dry wt, respectively, and congener compositions for PBDEs were dominated by BDE-209 (68.8-77.9%). Total PAH concentrations we found in coastal sediments were lower than those of other studies in the world. The highest ΣPAH values were observed at Kaohsiung coastal areas, while the lowest ΣPAH values were found at Tainan coastal areas. Total PBDE concentrations in coastal sediments were lower than those in river sediments. Sources of PBDEs in those sediments from coastal areas were different from those of river sediments because compound compositions in both areas were different.
Both total PAH and total PBDE concentrations were significantly correlated with total organic carbon (TOC) and mean particle size (r=0.51, -0.42, p<0.01; r=0.80, -0.85, p<0.01). In comparison with sediment quality guidelines (SQGs), the PAH concentrations of all sediment samples were lower than those outlined in the criteria, that suggests no evident adverse biological effects caused by PAHs.
According to the results of hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA), the stations can be clustered into three groups. In general, PAHs in sediments of Kaohsiung coastal area were mainly contributed from combustion sources, while those in Kao-ping estuary were mainly from petrogenic sources. However, both sediments in Tainan and Hsinda harbor coastal areas were mainly
contributed from biogenic sources.
目次 Table of Contents
摘要
Abstract
目錄 I
圖目錄 IV
表目錄 V
附表目錄 VI
第一章 前言 1
1-1 研究動機 1
1-2 研究目的 2
第二章 文獻回顧 3
2-1持久性有機污染物(POPs) 3
2-2阻燃劑(Flame Retardants) 3
2-3多溴聯苯醚(PBDEs) 5
2-4 環境中的多溴聯苯醚(PBDEs) 6
2-5 多溴聯苯醚使用情況 8
2-6 多環芳香烴(PAHs) 9
2-7多環芳香烴之來源 9
2-8多環芳香烴之化學指紋鑑識 10
第三章 研究方法 22
3-1 材料與儀器 22
3-1-1 材料 22
3-1-2 儀器設備 23
3-2 試藥及器具前處理 23
3-3 樣品之採樣與保存 24
3-4 樣品前處理 24
3-5 分析方法 25
3-5-1 顆徑分析 25
3-5-2 總有機碳(TOC)分析 25
3-5-3 多環芳香烴分析 25
3-5-4 多溴聯苯醚分析 27
3-6 品保及品管(QA�QC) 27
3-6-1 方法回收率 27
3-6-2 實驗空白分析 28
3-6-3 標準查核樣品分析 28
3-6-4 方法偵測極限 28
3-7 群集分析(Hierarchical Cluster Analysis, HCA) 28
3-8 因素分析 (Factor Analysis) 29
第四章 結果與討論 42
4-1 含量分布 42
4-1-1多環芳香烴之含量分布 42
4-1-2多溴聯苯醚之含量分布 43
4-2 全球文獻結果比較 44
4-2-1總多環芳香烴濃度與全球文獻結果比較 44
4-2-2總多溴聯苯醚與全球文獻結果比較 45
4-3 相關性分析 46
4-3-1 總多環芳香烴濃度、總有機碳及粒徑之相關性分析 46
4-3-2 總多溴聯苯醚濃度、總有機碳及粒徑之相關性分析 47
4-4 多環芳香烴之來源 47
4-5 Perylene之來源探討 50
4-6 沉積物品質指標(Sediment Quality Guidelines, SQG) 51
4-7群集分析(HCA)結果 52
4-8主成份分析(PCA)結果 53
第五章 結論與建議 78
5-1 結論 78
5-2 建議 80
參考文獻 81
附錄 91





圖目錄

圖2-1 四種主要溴化阻燃劑結構圖 13
圖2-2 甲狀腺T4激素結構圖 13
圖2-3 十溴聯苯醚形成溴化戴奧辛與溴化&#21579;喃之可能機制 14
圖2-4 台灣地區1997-2001年八溴與十溴聯苯醚進口總量 15
圖2-5 美國環保署列為16種優先處理的多環芳香烴 16
圖3-1 各測站採樣點之位置圖 30
圖3-2 愛河採樣點示意圖 31
圖3-3 前鎮河採樣點示意圖 32
圖4-1 各測站沉積物之總多環芳香烴含量 56
圖4-2 各區域沉積物總多環芳香烴平均含量 56
圖4-3 各測站沉積物之總多溴聯苯醚含量 57
圖4-4 各測站沉積物之BDE-209含量 57
圖4-5 海域與河川測站沉積物之多溴聯苯醚同源物含量比例 58
圖4-6 不同海域測站多環芳香烴濃度與粒徑關係圖 59
圖4-7 各測站多環芳香烴之isomer ratio 60
圖4-8 各測站沉積物中Perylene所佔含量分布圖 61
圖4-9 各測站沉積物之多環芳香烴濃度與TEL值 62
圖4-10 台灣西南海域各測站HCA分析結果 63
圖4-11 HCA各群集測站之分布圖 64
圖4-12 台灣西南海域測站群集分析Group之PAHs 相對濃度分佈 65
圖4-13 PC1對PC3之分數圖 66
圖4-14 PC2對PC3之分數圖 66

表目錄

表2-1 聯合國環境規劃署建議增列持久性有毒物質 17
表2-2 多溴聯苯醚之基本性質 18
表2-3 1999年全球多溴聯苯醚之需求量 19
表2-4 24種多環芳香烴的物化特性 20
表3-1 各測站之樣品採樣資料 33
表3-2 各測站之多環芳香烴擬似標準品回收率 35
表3-3 各測站之多溴聯苯醚擬似標準品回收率 37
表3-4 標準沉積物SRM 1941b 多環芳香烴分析結果 38
表3-5 標準沉積物SRM 1941b 多溴聯苯醚分析結果 39
表3-6 多環芳香烴之方法偵測極限 40
表3-7 多溴聯苯醚之方法偵測極限 41
表4-1 文獻上全球近岸及河川沉積物之總多環芳香烴濃度分布 67
表4-2 文獻上全球近岸及河川沉積物之總多溴聯苯醚濃度分布 69
表4-3 多環芳香烴相關係數矩陣表 70
表4-4 多溴聯苯醚相關係數矩陣表 70
表4-5 全球海洋沉積物perylene研究文獻彙整表 71
表4-6 沉積物品質指標(sediment quality guidelines)與各沿海區域PAHs 值比較表 73
表4-7 主成分變異數分析表 74
表4-8 主成分轉軸後之因素負荷表 75
表4-9 台灣西南海域各測站之isomer ratio 76





附表目錄

附表1 台灣西南海域測站沉積物之多環芳香烴含量 92
附表2 台灣西南海域及河川測站沉積物之多溴聯苯醚含量 97
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